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Aggregate employment growth and the deconcentration of metropolitan employment

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  • Satyajit Chatterjee
  • Gerald Carlino

Abstract

In this paper, the authors document that the disparity in employment densities across U.S. metropolitan areas has lessened substantially over the postwar period. To account for this deconcentration of metropolitan employment, the authors develop a system-of-cities model in which an increase in aggregate metropolitan employment causes congestion costs to increase faster for the more dense metro areas. A calibrated version of the model reveals that the (roughly) two-and-a-half-fold increase in postwar aggregate metropolitan employment implies, by itself, more deconcentration than actually observed. Thus, rising aggregate metropolitan employment appears to be a powerful force favoring deconcentration, although some benefit of greater employment density appears to have partially offset the effects of rising congestion costs for the more dense metro areas.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia in its series Working Papers with number 98-6.

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Date of creation: 1998
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedpwp:98-6

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Keywords: Employment (Economic theory) ; Metropolitan areas - Statistics;

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References

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  1. Jess Gaspar & Edward L. Glaeser, 1996. "Information Technology and the Future of Cities," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research 1756, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  2. Edward L. Glaeser & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1995. "Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Cities," NBER Working Papers 5013, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1987. "General equilibrium modeling of systems of cities," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier, in: E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 23, pages 927-956 Elsevier.
  4. Ciccone, Antonio & Hall, Robert E, 1996. "Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 54-70, March.
  5. Duncan Black & Vernon Henderson, 2003. "Urban evolution in the USA," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 343-372, October.
  6. Segal, David, 1976. "Are There Returns to Scale in City Size?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 58(3), pages 339-50, August.
  7. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  8. Moomaw, Ronald L, 1981. "Productivity and City Size? A Critique of the Evidence [Are There Returns to Scale in City Size?]. [Bias in the Cross Section Estimates of the Elasticity of Substitution]," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 96(4), pages 675-88, November.
  9. repec:fth:stanho:e-95-4 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Jonathan Eaton & Zvi Eckstein, 1994. "Cities and Growth: Theory and Evidence from France and Japan," NBER Working Papers 4612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Roback, Jennifer, 1982. "Wages, Rents, and the Quality of Life," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1257-78, December.
  12. Duncan Black & Vernon Henderson, 1997. "Urban Growth," NBER Working Papers 6008, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marvin Goofriend, 1999. "The role of a regional bank in a system of central banks," Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond 99-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  2. Beeson, Patricia E. & DeJong, David N. & Troesken, Werner, 2001. "Population growth in U.S. counties, 1840-1990," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 669-699, November.
  3. Gerald A. Carlino, 1998. "Trends in metropolitan employment growth," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Jul, pages 13-22.
  4. M. Bellinzas, 2004. "Dinamiche demografiche, agglomerazione e determinanti economiche. Il caso italiano," Working Paper CRENoS, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia 200407, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  5. Cuberes, David, 2008. "A Model of Sequential City Growth," MPRA Paper 8431, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Curtis Simon & Robert Tamura, 2010. "Secular Fertility Declines, Baby Booms and Economic Growth: International Evidence," 2010 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 1041, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Gerald Carlino & Satyajit Chatterjee, 1999. "Postwar trends in metropolitan employment growth: decentralization and deconcentration," Working Papers, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 99-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  8. Sukkoo Kim, 2002. "The Reconstruction of the American Urban Landscape in the Twentieth Century," NBER Working Papers 8857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Satyajit Chatterjee, 2004. "On the Contribution of Agglomeration Economies to the Spatial Concentration of U.S. Employment," 2004 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 192, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  10. Kevin M. Murphy & Curtis J. Simon & Robert Tamura, 2011. "Black and White Fertility, Differential Baby Booms: The Value of Civil Rights (Equal Opportunity for Education)," 2011 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 238, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  11. Marvin Goodfriend, 1999. "The role of a regional bank in a system of central banks. 1999 annual report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond," Annual Report, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.

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