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Comparative Advantage in Cyclical Unemployment

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  • Mark Bils
  • Yongsung Chang
  • Sun-Bin Kim

Abstract

We introduce worker differences in labor supply, reflecting differences in skills and assets, into a model of separations, matching, and unemployment over the business cycle. Separating from employment when unemployment duration is long is particularly costly for workers with high labor supply. This provides a rich set of testable predictions across workers: those with higher labor supply, say due to lower assets, should display more procyclical wages and less countercyclical separations. Consequently, the model predicts that the pool of unemployed will sort toward workers with lower labor supply in a downturn. Because these workers generate lower rents to employers, this discourages vacancy creation and exacerbates the cyclicality of unemployment and unemployment durations. We examine wage cyclicality and employment separations over the past twenty years for workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Wages are much more procyclical for workers who work more. This pattern is mirrored in separations; separations from employment are much less cyclical for those who work more. We do see for recessions a strong compositional shift among those unemployed toward workers who typically work less.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 13231.

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Date of creation: Jul 2007
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13231

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bachmann, Ronald & Sinning, Mathias, 2012. "Decomposing the Ins and Outs of Cyclical Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 6362, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Chassamboulli, Andri, 2013. "Labor-market volatility in a matching model with worker heterogeneity and endogenous separations," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 217-229.
  3. Krusell, Per & Mukoyama, Toshihiko & Sahin, Aysegul, 2009. "Labor-Market Matching with Precautionary Savings and Aggregate Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 7429, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Christian Bayer & Klaus Wälde, 2010. "Matching and Saving in Continuous Time: Theory," CESifo Working Paper Series 3026, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Leena Rudanko, 2011. "Aggregate and Idiosyncratic Risk in a Frictional Labor Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(6), pages 2823-43, October.
  6. Mark Bils & Yongsung Chang & Sun-Bin Kim, 2011. "Worker Heterogeneity and Endogenous Separations in a Matching Model of Unemployment Fluctuations," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 128-54, January.
  7. Moon, Weh-Sol, 2011. "Endogenous labor force participation and firing costs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 607-623, October.
  8. Mark Bils & Yongsung Chang & Sun-Bin Kim, 2008. "Heterogeneity and Cyclical Unemployment," Discussion Paper Series 0805, Institute of Economic Research, Korea University.
  9. Jeremy Lawson & Crystal Ossolinski, 2010. "Employment Composition: A Study of Australian Employment Growth, 2002–2006," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2010-04, Reserve Bank of Australia.

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