What Works in Fighting Diarrheal Diseases in Developing Countries? A Critical Review
AbstractThe Millennium Development Goals call for reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. This goal was adopted in large part because clean water was seen as critical to fighting diarrheal disease, which kills 2 million children annually. There is compelling evidence that provision of piped water and sanitation can substantially reduce child mortality. However, in dispersed rural settlements, providing complete piped water and sanitation infrastructure to households is expensive. Many poor countries have therefore focused instead on providing community-level water infrastructure, such as wells. Various traditional child health interventions have been shown to be effective in fighting diarrhea. Among environmental interventions, handwashing and point-of-use water treatment both reduce diarrhea, although more needs to be learned about ways to encourage households to take up these behavior changes. In contrast, there is little evidence that providing community-level rural water infrastructure substantially reduces diarrheal disease or that this infrastructure can be effectively maintained. Investments in communal water infrastructure short of piped water may serve other needs and may reduce diarrhea in particular circumstances, but the case for prioritizing communal infrastructure provision needs to be made rather than assumed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12987.
Date of creation: Mar 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Kremer, Michael and Alix Peterson Zwane. “What Works in Fighting Diarrheal Diseases in Developing Countries? A Critical Review.” World Bank Research Observer 22:1 (Spring 2007): 1-24.
Note: PE HC
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- O22 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Project Analysis
- Q52 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Pollution Control Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2007-03-31 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2007-03-31 (All new papers)
- NEP-HEA-2007-03-31 (Health Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nava Ashraf & James Berry & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2007.
"Can Higher Prices Stimulate Product Use? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Zambia,"
NBER Working Papers
13247, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nava Ashraf & James Berry & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2010. "Can Higher Prices Stimulate Product Use? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Zambia," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(5), pages 2383-2413, December.
- Watson, Tara, 2006. "Public health investments and the infant mortality gap: Evidence from federal sanitation interventions on U.S. Indian reservations," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(8-9), pages 1537-1560, September.
- Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 1998. "Are Women Less Selfish Than Men? Evidence from Dictator Experiments," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 726-35, May.
- Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2002.
"Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality,"
54, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Sep 2005.
- Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2005. "Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(1), pages 83-120, February.
- Dayton-Johnson, Jeff, 2000. "Determinants of collective action on the local commons: a model with evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 181-208, June.
- Nowell, Clifford & Tinkler, Sarah, 1994. "The influence of gender on the provision of a public good," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 25-36, September.
- Dollar, David & Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2001. "Are women really the "fairer" sex? Corruption and women in government," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 423-429, December.
- Mansuri, Ghazala & Rao, Vijayendra, 2004.
"Community-based (and driven) development : A critical review,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3209, The World Bank.
- Ghazala Mansuri, 2004. "Community-Based and -Driven Development: A Critical Review," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 19(1), pages 1-39.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004.
"Women as policy makers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in india,"
Framed Field Experiments
00224, The Field Experiments Website.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
- Kleemeier, Elizabeth, 2000. "The Impact of Participation on Sustainability: An Analysis of the Malawi Rural Piped Scheme Program," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 929-944, May.
- Miller, Peter & Hirschhorn, Norbert, 1995. "The effect of a national control of diarrheal diseases program on mortality: The case of Egypt," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages S1-S30, May.
- Solow, John L. & Kirkwood, Nicole, 2002. "Group identity and gender in public goods experiments," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 403-412, August.
- William Easterly, 2009.
"Can the West Save Africa?,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 373-447, June.
- Zhang, Jing, 2012. "The impact of water quality on health: Evidence from the drinking water infrastructure program in rural China," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 122-134.
- Jeffrey Hammer & Dean Spears, 2013. "Village sanitation externalities and children's human capital: Evidence from a randomized experiment by the Maharashtra government," Working Papers 1443, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Youssouf Kiendrebeogo, 2011.
"Access to Improved Water Sources and Rural Productivity: Analytical Framework and Cross-country Evidence,"
Documents de travail
165, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- Youssouf Kiendrebeogo, 2012. "Access to Improved Water Sources and Rural Productivity: Analytical Framework and Cross-country Evidence," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 24(2), pages 153-166, 06.
- Youssouf Kiendrebeogo, 2012. "Access to Improved Water Sources and Rural Productivity: Analytical Framework and Cross-country Evidence," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 24(2), pages 153-166.
- Isabel Günther & Kenneth Harttgen, 2010.
"Deadly Cities? A Note on Spatial Inequalities in Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa,"
Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers
52, Courant Research Centre PEG.
- Harttgen, Kenneth & Günther, Isabel, 2011. "Deadly Cities? A Note on Spatial Inequalities in Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 39, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Bhattamishra, Ruchira & Barrett, Christopher B., 2010. "Community-Based Risk Management Arrangements: A Review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 923-932, July.
- Hammer, Jeffrey & Spears, Dean, 2013. "Village sanitation and children's human capital : evidence from a randomized experiment by the Maharashtra government," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6580, The World Bank.
- Spears, Dean, 2014. "Decision costs and price sensitivity: Field experimental evidence from India," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 169-184.
- Tobias Lechtenfeld, 2012. "Why does piped water not reduce diarrhea for children? Evidence from urban Yemen," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 119, Courant Research Centre PEG.
- Patrick J. McEwan, 2011.
"Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Education and Health Interventions in Developing Countries,"
SPD Working Papers
1102, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Strategic Planning and Development Effectiveness (SPD).
- Patrick J. McEwan, 2012. "Cost-effectiveness analysis of education and health interventions in developing countries," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 189-213, June.
- Sheila M. Olmstead, 2010. "The Economics of Water Quality," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 4(1), pages 44-62, Winter.
- Leonardo Becchetti & Giuseppina Gianfreda, 2008. "When consumption heals producers: the effect of fair trade on marginalised producers’ health and productivity," Working Papers 86, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.