Effects of early-life exposure to sanitation on childhood cognitive skills : evidence from India's total sanitation campaign
AbstractEarly life health and net nutrition shape childhood and adult cognitive skills and human capital. In poor countries -- and especially in South Asia -- widespread open defecation without making use of a toilet or latrine is an important source of childhood disease. This paper studies the effects on childhood cognitive achievement of early life exposure to India's Total Sanitation Campaign, a large government program that encouraged local governments to build and promote use of inexpensive pit latrines. In the early years of the program studied here, the TSC caused six-year-olds exposed to it in their first year of life to be more likely to recognize letters and simple numbers. The results suggest both that open defecation is an important threat to the human capital of the Indian labor force, and that a program feasible to low capacity governments in developing countries could improve average cognitive skills.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6659.
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2013
Date of revision:
Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Disease Control&Prevention; Primary Education; Educational Sciences; Population Policies;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-10-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2013-10-25 (Development)
- NEP-NEU-2013-10-25 (Neuroeconomics)
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