Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES

Contents:

Author Info

  • Veronica Amarante
  • Mery Ferrando
  • Andrea Vigorito

Abstract

In this paper we analyze the impact an emergency social assistance program, PANES, on school attendance and child labour. The program was carried out in Uruguay from April 2005 to December 2007. Specifically, we analyze the effects of the cash transfer component of the plan (Ingreso Ciudadano), and explore potential explanatory channels such as labour market outcomes, income and awareness of conditionalities. This research is based on a panel of successful and unsuccessful applicants to PANES. The first wave uses the administrative records of the program and the second wave is a follow-up survey that was gathered two months after the program ended and was specifically designed to carry out the impact evaluation of the program. In order to check the robustness of our results, we provide evidence based on two different identification strategies: a regression discontinuity approach using data from the second wave of the panel, and a difference-in-difference approach that exploits the longitudinal nature of the collected data. Our results indicate that the program did not affect school attendance or child labour, whether children are considered as one group or are disaggregated by age or sex. We also do not find any impact on household income, which suggests that income substitution does not explain the lack of results in terms of schooling. It therefore appears that either the size of the transfer was not generous enough to promote school attendance or that the determinants of child school attendance are more complex and require complementary interventions. Our results are particularly relevant for understanding of the role of cash transfers in middle-income countries where attendance rates at primary school are already high, and where the main challenge is to keep students in school at the secondary level. The data also allows us to explore the role of conditionalities. Only a small share of households was aware of the school enrolment condition (20%). Conditionalities were announced and are present in other social security programs in Uruguay, but were ultimately not monitored in this case. We did not find the conditionality to have any robust impact (as perceived by the household) on children’s school enrolment.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://portal.pep-net.org/documents/download/id/18233
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by PEP-PIERI in its series Working Papers PIERI with number 2011-22.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lvl:piercr:2011-22

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Pavillon J.A. De Seve, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
Phone: 1-418-656-2131, ext. 2697
Fax: 1-418-656-7798
Email:
Web page: http://www.pep-net.org
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Cash transfer program; Impact evaluation; School attendance; Child labour; Uruguay;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Marco Manacorda & Edward Miguel & Andrea Vigorito, 2009. "Government Transfers and Political Support," CEP Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE dp0912, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  2. David S. Lee & David Card, 2006. "Regression Discontinuity Inference with Specification Error," NBER Technical Working Papers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc 0322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. de Brauw, Alan & Hoddinott, John, 2011. "Must conditional cash transfer programs be conditioned to be effective? The impact of conditioning transfers on school enrollment in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 359-370, November.
  4. Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Technical Working Papers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc 0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
  6. P. Deb & F. Rosati, 2002. "Determinants of Child Labour and School Attendance: The Role of Household Unobservables," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 9, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  7. David P. Coady & Susan W. Parker, 2004. "Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Demand- and Supply-side Education Interventions: the Case of PROGRESA in Mexico," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 440-451, 08.
  8. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
  9. Furio C. Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," CEIS Research Paper, Tor Vergata University, CEIS 25, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
  10. Guillermo Alves & Verónica Amarante & Gonzalo Salas & Andrea Vigorito, 2012. "La desigualdad del ingreso en Uruguay entre 1986 y 2009," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 12-03, Instituto de Economía - IECON.
  11. Skoufias, Emmanuel & Parker, Susan W., 2001. "Conditional cash transfers and their impact on child work and schooling," FCND briefs, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 123, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  12. McCrary, Justin, 2008. "Manipulation of the running variable in the regression discontinuity design: A density test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 698-714, February.
  13. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2006. "School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty," IZA Discussion Papers 2515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2597, August.
  15. repec:idb:brikps:79879 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Marisa Bucheli & Carlos Casacuberta, 1999. "Asistencia escolar y participación en el mercado de trabajo de los adolescentes en Uruguay," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers), Department of Economics - dECON 1599, Department of Economics - dECON.
  17. Schady, Norbert & Araujo, Maria Caridad, 2006. "Cash transfers, conditions, school enrollment, and child work : evidence from a randomized experiment in Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3930, The World Bank.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES
    by Maximo Rossi in Wikiprogress América Latina on 2012-01-05 20:24:00
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. de Hoop, Jacobus & Rosati, Furio C., 2014. "Cash transfers and child labor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6826, The World Bank.
  2. Verónica Amarante & Andrea Vigorito, 2012. "The Expansion of Non-Contributory Transfers in Uruguay in Recent Years," Policy Research Brief 29, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lvl:piercr:2011-22. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Johanne Perron).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.