School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES
AbstractIn this paper we analyze the impact an emergency social assistance program, PANES, on school attendance and child labour. The program was carried out in Uruguay from April 2005 to December 2007. Specifically, we analyze the effects of the cash transfer component of the plan (Ingreso Ciudadano), and explore potential explanatory channels such as labour market outcomes, income and awareness of conditionalities. This research is based on a panel of successful and unsuccessful applicants to PANES. The first wave uses the administrative records of the program and the second wave is a follow-up survey that was gathered two months after the program ended and was specifically designed to carry out the impact evaluation of the program. In order to check the robustness of our results, we provide evidence based on two different identification strategies: a regression discontinuity approach using data from the second wave of the panel, and a difference-in-difference approach that exploits the longitudinal nature of the collected data. Our results indicate that the program did not affect school attendance or child labour, whether children are considered as one group or are disaggregated by age or sex. We also do not find any impact on household income, which suggests that income substitution does not explain the lack of results in terms of schooling. It therefore appears that either the size of the transfer was not generous enough to promote school attendance or that the determinants of child school attendance are more complex and require complementary interventions. Our results are particularly relevant for understanding of the role of cash transfers in middle-income countries where attendance rates at primary school are already high, and where the main challenge is to keep students in school at the secondary level. The data also allows us to explore the role of conditionalities. Only a small share of households was aware of the school enrolment condition (20%). Conditionalities were announced and are present in other social security programs in Uruguay, but were ultimately not monitored in this case. We did not find the conditionality to have any robust impact (as perceived by the household) on children’s school enrolment.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by PEP-PIERI in its series Working Papers PIERI with number 2011-22.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Pavillon J.A. De Seve, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
Phone: 1-418-656-2131, ext. 2697
Web page: http://www.pep-net.org
More information through EDIRC
Cash transfer program; Impact evaluation; School attendance; Child labour; Uruguay;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-01-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-LAB-2012-01-03 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LAM-2012-01-03 (Central & South America)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- McCrary, Justin, 2008. "Manipulation of the running variable in the regression discontinuity design: A density test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 698-714, February.
- Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003.
"Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
- Furio C. Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," CEIS Research Paper 25, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008. "Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Working Papers 13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Marco Manacorda & Edward Miguel & Andrea Vigorito, 2009.
"Government Transfers and Political Support,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0912, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Manacorda, Marco & Miguel, Edward & Vigorito, Andrea, 2009. "Government Transfers and Political Support," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt9n42t9sw, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Marco Manacorda & Edward Miguel & Andrea Vigorito, 2009. "Government Transfers and Political Support," NBER Working Papers 14702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Manacorda, Marco & Miguel, Edward & Vigorito, Andrea, 2009. "Government Transfers and Political Support," CEPR Discussion Papers 7163, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- de Brauw, Alan & Hoddinott, John, 2011.
"Must conditional cash transfer programs be conditioned to be effective? The impact of conditioning transfers on school enrollment in Mexico,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 359-370, November.
- de Brauw, Alan & Hoddinott, John, 2008. "Must conditional cash transfer programs be conditioned to be effective?: The impact of conditioning transfers on school enrollment in Mexico," IFPRI discussion papers 757, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- David P. Coady & Susan W. Parker, 2004. "Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Demand- and Supply-side Education Interventions: the Case of PROGRESA in Mexico," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 440-451, 08.
- P. Deb & F. Rosati, 2002.
"Determinants of Child Labour and School Attendance: The Role of Household Unobservables,"
UCW Working Paper
9, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Partha Deb & Furio Rosati, 2002. "Determinants of Child Labor and School Attendance: The Role of Household Unobservables," Hunter College Department of Economics Working Papers 02/9, Hunter College: Department of Economics.
- Verónica Amarante & Marco Manacorda & Andrea Vigorito & Mariana Zerpa, 2011. "Social Assistance and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the Uruguayan PANES," IDB Publications 79879, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Skoufias, Emmanuel & Parker, Susan W., 2001.
"Conditional cash transfers and their impact on child work and schooling,"
FCND discussion papers
123, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Skoufias, Emmanuel & Parker, Susan W., 2001. "Conditional cash transfers and their impact on child work and schooling," FCND briefs 123, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Schady, Norbert & Araujo, Maria Caridad, 2006. "Cash transfers, conditions, school enrollment, and child work : evidence from a randomized experiment in Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3930, The World Bank.
- Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
- Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2006.
"School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2007. "School drop-out and push-out factors in Brazil : the role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4178, The World Bank.
- Guillermo Alves & Verónica Amarante & Gonzalo Salas & Andrea Vigorito, 2012. "La desigualdad del ingreso en Uruguay entre 1986 y 2009," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 12-03, Instituto de Economia - IECON.
- Verónica Amarante & Rodrigo Arim & Mónica Rubio & Andrea Vigorito, 2005. "Pobreza, red de protección social y situación de la infancia en Uruguay," IDB Publications 25658, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Lee, David S. & Card, David, 2008.
"Regression discontinuity inference with specification error,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 655-674, February.
- David S. Lee & David Card, 2006. "Regression Discontinuity Inference with Specification Error," NBER Technical Working Papers 0322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES
by Maximo Rossi in Wikiprogress América Latina on 2012-01-05 20:24:00
- Verónica Amarante & Andrea Vigorito, 2012. "The Expansion of Non-Contributory Transfers in Uruguay in Recent Years," Policy Research Brief 29, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
- de Hoop, Jacobus & Rosati, Furio C., 2013. "Cash Transfers and Child Labour," IZA Discussion Papers 7496, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Johanne Perron).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.