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School drop-out and push-out factors in Brazil : the role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty

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  • Cardoso, Ana Rute
  • Verner, Dorte

Abstract

This paper aims to identify the major drop-out and push-out factors that lead to school abandonment in an urban surrounding-the shantytowns of Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. The authors use an extensive survey addressing risk factors faced by the population in these neighborhoods, which cover both in-school and out-of-school youth of both genders. They focus on the role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty in pushing teenagers out of school. The potential endogeneity of some of the determinants is dealt with in the empirical analysis. The authors take advantage of the rich set of variables available and apply an instrumental variables approach. Early parenthood is instrumented with the age declared by the youngsters as the ideal age to start having sexual relationships. Work is instrumented using the declared reservation wage (minimum salary acceptable to work). Results indicate that early parenthood has a strong impact of driving teenagers out of school. Extreme poverty is another factor lowering school attendance, as children who have suffered hunger at some point in their lives are less likely to attend school. In this particular urban context, working does not necessarily have a detrimental effect on school attendance, which could be linked to the fact that dropping out of school leads most often to inactivity and not to work.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4178.

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Date of creation: 01 Mar 2007
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4178

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Keywords: Education For All; Youth and Governance; Population Policies; Tertiary Education; Street Children;

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  1. Priya Ranjan, 2004. "Why Children Work, Attend School, or Stay Idle: Theory and Evidence," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings, Econometric Society 362, Econometric Society.
  2. Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
  3. Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0213, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  4. Beegle, Kathleen & Dehejia, Rajeev & Gatti, Roberta, 2005. "Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3479, The World Bank.
  5. Verner, Dorte & Alda, Erik, 2004. "Youth at risk, social exclusion, and intergenerational poverty dynamics : A new survey instrument with application to Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3296, The World Bank.
  6. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
  7. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  8. Sarmistha Pal, 2003. "Child Schooling in Peru: Evidence From A Sequential Analysis of School Progression," Labor and Demography, EconWPA 0309001, EconWPA.
  9. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 41-62.
  10. Emerson, Patrick M. & Souza, André Portela, 2008. "Birth Order, Child Labor, and School Attendance in Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1647-1664, September.
  11. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
  12. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
  13. Bedi, A.S. & Marshall, J.H., 2000. "Primary school attendance in Honduras," ISS Working Papers - General Series, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague 19066, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  14. Gunnarsson, Victoria & Orazem, Peter & Sanchez, Mario A., 2003. "Child Labor and School Achievement in Latin America," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 10684, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  15. Pinka Chatterji & Jeff DeSimone, 2005. "Adolescent Drinking and High School Dropout," NBER Working Papers 11337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
  17. Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996. "Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Papers, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark- 96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
  18. Duryea, Suzanne & Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 2007. "Effects of economic shocks on children's employment and schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 188-214, September.
  19. Roebuck, M. Christopher & French, Michael T. & Dennis, Michael L., 2004. "Adolescent marijuana use and school attendance," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 133-141, April.
  20. Farahati, F. & Marcotte, D. E. & Wilcox-Gok, V., 2003. "The effects of parents' psychiatric disorders on children's high school dropout," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 167-178, April.
  21. Orazem, Peter & Gunnarsson, Victoria, 2004. "Child Labour, School Attendance and Performance: A Review," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 11177, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. repec:idb:brikps:73138 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Mariana Alfonso, 2008. "Las chicas sólo quieren divertirse? Sexualidad, embarazo y maternidad en las adolecentes de Bolivia," Research Department Publications, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department 4539, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  3. Niall O'Higgins & Marcello D'Amato & Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Adriana Barone, 2007. "Gone for Good? Determinants of School Dropout in Southern Italy," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 66(2), pages 207-246, July.
  4. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  5. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2010. "Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 442-465, May.
  6. Shonchoy, Abu S. & Ito, Seiro, 2011. "Ramadan school holidays as a natural experiment : impacts of seasonality on school dropout in Bangladesh," IDE Discussion Papers, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) 295, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  7. Mariana Alfonso, 2008. "Girls Just Want to Have Fun? Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Motherhood among Bolivian Teenagers," Research Department Publications, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department 4538, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  8. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2007. "Youth Risk-Taking Behavior in Brazil: Drug Use and Teenage Pregnancies," IZA Discussion Papers 3030, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Orazem, Peter & Glewwe, Paul & Patrinos, Harry, 2007. "The Benefits and Costs of Alternative Strategies to Improve Educational Outcomes," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 12853, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  10. Veronica Amarante & Mery Ferrando & Andrea Vigorito, 2011. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES," Working Papers PIERI 2011-22, PEP-PIERI.

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