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Inequality, Human Capital Formation and the Process of Development

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  • Galor, Oded

    ()
    (Brown University)

Abstract

Conventional wisdom about the relationship between income distribution and economic development has been subjected to dramatic transformations in the past century. While classical economists advanced the hypothesis that inequality is beneficial for growth, the neoclassical paradigm dismissed the classical hypothesis and suggested that income distribution has limited role in the growth process. A metamorphosis in these perspectives has taken place in the past two decades. Theory and subsequent empirical evidence have demonstrated that income distribution has a significant impact on human capital formation and the development process. In early stages of industrialization, as physical capital accumulation was a prime engine of growth, inequality enhanced the process of development by channeling resources towards individuals whose marginal propensity to save is higher. In later stages of development, however, as human capital has become a main engine of growth, equality, in the presence of credit constraints, has stimulated human capital formation and growth. Moreover, unequal distribution of land has been a hurdle for economic development. While industrialists have had an incentive to support education policies that foster human capital formation, landowners, whose interests lay in the reduction of the mobility of their labor force, have favored policies that deprived the masses of education.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6328.

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Length: 65 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2012
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Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6328

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Keywords: inequality; human capital; growth; development; credit market imperfections;

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Cited by:
  1. Cinnirella, Francesco & Hornung, Erik, 2013. "Landownership Concentration and the Expansion of Education," CAGE Online Working Paper Series, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE) 175, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  2. Jun, Bogang, 2012. "Non-Financial Hurdles for Human Capital Accumulation: Landownership in Korea under Japanese Rule," MPRA Paper 43172, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Töngür, Ünal & Elveren, Adem, 2013. "The Impact of Military Spending and Income Inequality on Economic Growth in Turkey, 1963-2008," EY International Congress on Economics I (EYC2013), October 24-25, 2013, Ankara, Turkey, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association 251, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association.
  4. Franciscos Koutentakis, 2012. "Public Education and Democracy in a Simple Model of Persistent Inequality," Working Papers, University of Crete, Department of Economics 1204, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  5. Russo, Alberto, 2011. "Towards a stochastic model with heterogeneous agents and class division," MPRA Paper 31733, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Akçomak, I. Semih & Webbink, Dinand & ter Weel, Bas, 2013. "Why Did the Netherlands Develop So Early? The Legacy of the Brethren of the Common Life," IZA Discussion Papers 7167, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Matsuo, Miki & Tomoda, Yasunobu, 2012. "Human capital Kuznets curve with subsistence consumption level," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 392-395.
  8. Karanassou, Marika & Sala, Hector, 2011. "Inequality and Employment Sensitivities to the Falling Labour Share," IZA Discussion Papers 5796, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Jun, Bogang & Hwang, Won-Sik, 2012. "Financial Hurdles for Human Capital Accumulation: Revisiting the Galor-Zeira Model," MPRA Paper 46317, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Baten, Joerg & Juif, Dácil, 2014. "A story of large landowners and math skills: Inequality and human capital formation in long-run development, 1820–2000," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 375-401.
  11. Russo, Alberto, 2012. "From the Neoliberal crisis to a new path of development," MPRA Paper 38004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Mazzonna, Fabrizio, 2014. "The long-lasting effects of family background: A European cross-country comparison," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 25-42.
  13. Markus Bruckner & Era Dabla-Norris & Mark Gradstein, 2014. "National Income and Its Distribution," IMF Working Papers 14/101, International Monetary Fund.

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