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Exploring the Impacts of Public Childcare on Mothers and Children in Italy: Does Rationing Play a Role?

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Author Info

  • Brilli, Ylenia

    ()
    (European University Institute)

  • Del Boca, Daniela

    ()
    (University of Turin)

  • Pronzato, Chiara D.

    ()
    (University of Turin)

Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of public childcare availability in Italy on mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending second grade of primary school in 2008-09 in conjunction with data on public childcare availability. Public childcare coverage in Italy is scarce (12.7 percent versus the OECD average of 30 percent) and the service is “rationed”: each municipality allocates the available slots according to eligibility criteria. We contribute to the existing literature taking into account rationing in public childcare access and the functioning of the childcare market. Our estimates indicate that childcare availability has positive and significant effects on both mothers' working status and children's language test scores. The effects are stronger when the degree of rationing is high and for low educated mothers and children living in lower income areas of the country.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5918.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as 'Does child care availability play a role in maternal employment and children's development? Evidence from Italy' in: Review of Economics of the Household, 2013, [Online First]
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5918

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Keywords: female employment; childcare; child cognitive outcomes;

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References

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  1. Havnes, Tarjei & Mogstad, Magne, 2011. "Money for nothing? Universal child care and maternal employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1455-1465.
  2. Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2006. "The Mismatch between Employment and Child Care in Italy: the Impact of Rationing," CHILD Working Papers, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY wp08_06, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  3. Daniela Del Boca & Marilena Locatelli & Daniela Vuri, 2005. "Child-Care Choices by Working Mothers: The Case of Italy," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 453-477, December.
  4. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2003. "Human Capital Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "Universal Child Care, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(4), pages 709-745, 08.
  6. Del Boca, Daniela, 2002. "The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Jeffrey Milyo & David M. Primo & Matthew L. Jacobsmeier, 2006. "Estimating the Impact of State Policies and Institutions with Mixed-Level Data," Working Papers, Department of Economics, University of Missouri 0603, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  8. James J. Heckman & Jora Stixrud & Sergio Urzua, 2006. "The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 411-482, July.
  9. Daniela Del Boca & Robert M. Sauer, 2006. "Life Cycle Employment and Fertility Across Institutional Environments," Carlo Alberto Notebooks, Collegio Carlo Alberto 20, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
  10. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Marianne Simonsen, 2010. "Effects of Universal Child Care Participation on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behaviors," Economics Working Papers, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus 2010-07, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  11. Tarjei Havnes & Magne Mogstad, 2009. "No Child Left Behind. Universal Child Care and Children’s Long-Run Outcomes," Discussion Papers, Research Department of Statistics Norway 582, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  12. Loeb, Susanna & Bridges, Margaret & Bassok, Daphna & Fuller, Bruce & Rumberger, Russell W., 2007. "How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children's social and cognitive development," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 52-66, February.
  13. Chiara Pronzato, 2012. "An examination of paternal and maternal intergenerational transmission of schooling," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 591-608, January.
  14. Havnes, Tarjei & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "Is Universal Child Care Leveling the Playing Field? Evidence from Non-Linear Difference-in-Differences," IZA Discussion Papers 4978, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua & Chiara Pronzato, 2008. "Motherhood and market work decisions in institutional context: A European perspective," Working Papers, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi 011, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
  16. Maria Alessandra Antonelli & Veronica Grembi, 2010. "The More Public The More Private? The Case Of The Italian Childcare," Working Papers, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre 0310, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre, revised 2010.
  17. Magnuson, Katherine A. & Ruhm, Christopher & Waldfogel, Jane, 2007. "Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 33-51, February.
  18. Massimiliano Bratti & Emilia Del Bono & Daniela Vuri, 2005. "New Mothers' Labour Force Participation in Italy: The Role of Job Characteristics," LABOUR, CEIS, CEIS, vol. 19(s1), pages 79-121, December.
  19. Elizabeth U. Cascio, 2009. "Maternal Labor Supply and the Introduction of Kindergartens into American Public Schools," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(1).
  20. Chiara Pronzato, 2009. "Return to work after childbirth: does parental leave matter in Europe?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 341-360, December.
  21. Fitzpatrick Maria D, 2008. "Starting School at Four: The Effect of Universal Pre-Kindergarten on Children's Academic Achievement," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-40, November.
  22. Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(1).
  23. Holmlund, Helena & Lindahl, Mikael & Plug, Erik, 2010. "The Causal Eff ect of Parent’s Schooling on Children’s Schooling," Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies, Uppsala University, Department of Economics 2010:8, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bruno Arpino & Chiara D. Pronzato & Lara P. Tavares, 2012. "Mothers’ labour market participation: Do grandparents make it easier?," Carlo Alberto Notebooks, Collegio Carlo Alberto 277, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
  2. Ylenia Brilli, 2012. "Public and parental investments in children. Evidence from the literature on non-parental child care," CHILD Working Papers Series, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA 6, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA.
  3. Vincenzo Galasso & Paola Profeta & Chiara Pronzato & Francesco C. Billari, 2013. "The Difficult Case of Persuading Women: Experimental Evidence from Childcare," CESifo Working Paper Series 4418, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Daniela Del Boca & Chiara Monfardini & Cheti Nicoletti, 2012. "Children's and Parents' Time-Use Choices and Cognitive Development during Adolescence," Working Papers, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group 2012-006, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
  5. Giacomo De Giorgi & Marco Paccagnella & Michele Pellizzari, 2013. "Gender complementarities in the labor market," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 183, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  6. Vanleenhove, Pieter, 2013. "Full Childcare Coverage: Higher Maternal Labour Supply and Childcare Usage?," EUROMOD Working Papers em19/13, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  7. Bauchmüller, Robert, 2013. "Centre-based versus home-based childcare," MERIT Working Papers 026, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

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