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The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets

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Author Info

  • Hazans, Mihails

    ()
    (University of Latvia)

  • Philips, Kaia

    ()
    (University of Tartu)

Abstract

We use Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian LFS data (2002-2007) complemented with several other surveys to compare the profile of Baltic temporary workers abroad before and after EU accession with that of stayers and return migrants. Determinants of migration and return, as well as selection issues are discussed. Post-enlargement migrants from all three countries were significantly less educated than stayers. After accession, medium-educated workers were most likely to move, other things equal, and human capital became increasingly less pro-migration over time. Return migrants differ from all movers in many ways and, in particular, are more educated. Although brain drain was not a feature of post-accession Baltic migration, brain waste was: during 2006-2007, the proportion of overqualified among high-educated movers ranged from five out of ten for Latvia to seven out of ten for Lithuania, but it was around one fifth among high-educated stayers in all three countries. We find that the free movement of labor partially introduced in 2004 (and expanded in 2006) for EU citizens, although excluding Baltic non-citizens, brought about significant changes in how ethnicity and citizenship affect workers' mobility. We conclude by discussing migration perspectives in the context of recession.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5878.

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Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Martin Kahanec and Klaus F. Zimmermann (eds), EU Labor Markets After Post-Enlargement Migration, Berlin - Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, 255-304
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5878

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Keywords: return migrants; Baltic countries; EU enlargement; migration; ethnic minorities;

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References

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  1. David G. Blanchflower & Chris Shadforth, 2007. "Fear, Unemployment and Migration," NBER Working Papers 13506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the EU: An East-West Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 3420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Tommaso Frattini, 2008. "The labour market impact of immigration," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 478-495, Autumn.
  4. Hazans, Mihails & Philips, Kaia, 2011. "The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5878, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Barrett, Alan, 2009. "EU Enlargement and Ireland's Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 4260, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Mihails Hazans & Ija Trapeznikova & Olga Rastrigina, 2008. "Ethnic and parental effects on schooling outcomes before and during the transition: evidence from the Baltic countries," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 719-749, July.
  7. Brücker, Herbert & Jahn, Elke J., 2008. "Migration and the Wage Curve: A Structural Approach to Measure the Wage and Employment Effects of Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 3423, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0702, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  9. Mihails Hazans, 2003. "Determinants of Inter-Regional Migration in the Baltic Countries," ERSA conference papers ersa03p354, European Regional Science Association.
  10. Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Kahanec, Martin & Constant, Amelie F. & DeVoretz, Don J. & Gataullina, Liliya & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Report No. 16: Study on the Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities," IZA Research Reports 16, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Lessons from Migration after EU Enlargement," IZA Discussion Papers 4230, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Barrett, Alan & McGuinness, Seamus & O'Brien, Martin, 2008. "The Immigrant Earnings Disadvantage across the Earnings and Skills Distributions: The Case of Immigrants from the EU’s New Member States in Ireland," IZA Discussion Papers 3479, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence from the UK," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 236-256, 06.
  14. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1994. "Estimating a Wage Curve for Britain: 1973-90," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(426), pages 1025-43, September.
  15. Dustmann, Christian, 1997. "Return migration, uncertainty and precautionary savings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 295-316, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Elsner, Benjamin, 2012. "Does Emigration Benefit the Stayers? Evidence from EU Enlargement," IZA Discussion Papers 6843, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Sandrine Levasseur, 2011. "Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the global crisis," Sciences Po publications 2011-25, Sciences Po.
  3. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect Of Migration Experience On Occupational Mobility In Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 92, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
  4. Elsner, Benjamin, 2011. "Emigration and Wages: The EU Enlargement Experiment," Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48716, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  5. Hazans, Mihails & Philips, Kaia, 2011. "The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5878, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Benjamin Elsner, 2010. "Does Emigration Benefit the Stayers? The EU Enlargement as a Natural Experiment. Evidence from Lithuania," Working Papers 2010.151, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  7. Sandrine Levasseur, 2011. "labour markets adjustments in Estonia during the global crisis," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2011-25, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  8. Kahanec, Martin, 2012. "Report No. 49: Skilled Labor Flows: Lessons from the European Union," IZA Research Reports 49, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect of Temporary Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia," CESifo Working Paper Series 4322, CESifo Group Munich.
  10. Sandrine LEVASSEUR, 2012. "Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 123-143, June.
  11. Jaan Masso & K. Espenberg & Anu Masso & I. Mierina & Kaia Philips, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania," GINI Country Reports baltics, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  12. Fertig, Michael & Kahanec, Martin, 2013. "Mobility in an Enlarging European Union: Projections of Potential Flows from EU's Eastern Neighbors and Croatia," IZA Discussion Papers 7634, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 089, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics.
  14. Krasnopjorovs, Olegs, 2013. "Latvijas ekonomikas izaugsmi noteicošie faktori
    [Factors of Economic Growth in Latvia]
    ," MPRA Paper 47550, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Martin Kahanec, 2013. "Skilled Labor Flows: Lessons from the European Union," Research Reports 1, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
  16. Ieva Brauksa & Ludmila Fadejeva, 2013. "Internal Labour Market Mobility in 2005-2011: The Case of Latvia," Working Papers 2013/02, Latvijas Banka.

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