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Ethnic Minorities in the European Union: An Overview

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  • Kahanec, Martin

    ()
    (Central European University)

  • Zaiceva, Anzelika

    ()
    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

  • Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    ()
    (IZA and University of Bonn)

Abstract

This paper sheds light on the labor market situation of ethnic minorities in the European Union. Facing a serious measurement challenge and lacking adequate data, we apply several measures of ethnicity and examine various data sources as well as secondary evidence. We find significant gaps between ethnic minority and majority populations in terms of labor market outcomes. In particular, ethnic minorities appear to face disproportional difficulties in finding a job. Although experience in the host country improves the status of immigrant minorities, we do not find any clear assimilation of further immigrant generations. Roma people seem to face particularly grave integration barriers in European labor markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5397.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: M. Kahanec and K. F. Zimmermann (eds.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, 1 - 30
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5397

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Keywords: ethnicity; unemployment; migration; labor market; ethnic minority; labor force participation;

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References

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  1. Joop Hartog & Aslan Zorlu, 2009. "How important is homeland education for refugees’ economic position in The Netherlands?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 219-246, January.
  2. Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2007. "Measuring Ethnic Identity and Its Impact on Economic Behavior," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 721, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Zimmermann, Klaus F. (ed.), 2005. "European Migration: What Do We Know?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199257355, September.
  4. Kahanec, Martin & Mendola, Mariapia, 2007. "Social Determinants of Labor Market Status of Ethnic Minorities in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 3146, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Lessons from Migration after EU Enlargement," IZA Discussion Papers 4230, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Stephen Wheatley Price, 2001. "The employment adjustment of male immigrants in England," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 193-220.
  7. Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2008. "Migration, the Quality of the Labour Force and Economic Inequality," CEPR Discussion Papers 6899, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Kahanec, Martin, 2007. "Ethnic Competition and Specialization," IZA Discussion Papers 3167, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Amelie Constant & Liliya Gataullina & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2006. "Ethnosizing Immigrants," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 567, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  10. Amelie Constant & Douglas S. Massey, 2003. "Self-selection, earnings, and out-migration: A longitudinal study of immigrants to Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 631-653, November.
  11. Kristin F. Butcher & John DiNardo, 1998. "The Immigrant and Native-born Wage Distributions: Evidence from United States Censuses," NBER Working Papers 6630, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Alicia Adsera & Barry Chiswick, 2007. "Are there gender and country of origin differences in immigrant labor market outcomes across European destinations?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 495-526, July.
  13. Constant, Amelie F., 2003. "Immigrant Adjustment in France and Impacts on the Natives," IZA Discussion Papers 866, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & de la Rica, Sara, 2006. "Labor Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 2104, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the EU: An East-West Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 3420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Helena Skyt Nielsen & Michael Rosholm & Nina Smith & Leif Husted, 2004. "Qualifications, discrimination, or assimilation? An extended framework for analysing immigrant wage gaps," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 855-883, December.
  17. Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Kahanec, Martin & Constant, Amelie F. & DeVoretz, Don J. & Gataullina, Liliya & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Report No. 16: Study on the Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities," IZA Research Reports 16, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Romain Aeberhardt & Denis Fougère & Julien Pouget & Roland Rathelot, 2007. "Wages and Employment of French Workers with African Origin," Working Papers 2007-36, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  19. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2008. "Scale, Diversity and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 6921, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. Barry R. Chiswick & Anh T. Le & Paul W. Miller, 2008. "How Immigrants Fare across the Earnings Distribution in Australia and the United States," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 61(3), pages 353-373, April.
  21. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  22. Alexandre KOLEV, 2005. "Unemployment, job quality and poverty: A case study of Bulgaria," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 144(1), pages 85-114, 03.
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Cited by:
  1. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "Informal workers across Europe : evidence from 30 European countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5912, The World Bank.
  2. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "What Explains Prevalence of Informal Employment in European Countries: The Role of Labor Institutions, Governance, Immigrants, and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 5872, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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