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Emigration and the Age Profile of Retirement Among Immigrants

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  • Deborah Cobb-Clark

    ()

  • Steven Stillman

    ()
    (Economics Program and Social Policy Evaluation, Analysis, and Research (SPEAR) Centre Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA),Motu Economic and Public Policy Rese)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between immigrants' retirement status and the prevalence of return migration from the host country to their country of origin. We develop a simple theoretical model to illustrate that under reasonable conditions the probability of return migration is maximized at retirement. Reduced-form models of retirement status which control for the rate of return migration are then estimated using unique data on emigration rates matched to individual-level data for Australia. We find that immigrants, particularly immigrant women, are more likely to be retired than are native-born men and women with the same demographic, human capital, and family characteristics. Moreover, within the immigrant population, there is a negative relationship between the propensity to be retired and the return migration rate of one's fellow countrymen, particularly amongst men. This link is strongest for those individuals who are at (or near) retirement age and among those with the highest cost of return migration. These results suggest that the fiscal pressures associated with aging immigrant populations vary substantially across origin countries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London in its series CReAM Discussion Paper Series with number 0815.

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Date of creation: Dec 2008
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Handle: RePEc:crm:wpaper:0815

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Keywords: retirement; immigrants; return migration; emigration; Australia;

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References

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  1. Sinning, Mathias, 2007. "Determinants of Savings and Remittances: Empirical Evidence from Immigrants to Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 2966, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Galor, Oded & Stark, Oded, 1990. "Migrants' Savings, the Probability of Return Migration and Migrants' Performance," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(2), pages 463-67, May.
  3. Oded Stark & Christian Helmenstein & Yury Yegorov, 1997. "Migrants' Savings, Purchasing Power Parity, and the Optimal Duration of Migration," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 307-324, July.
  4. Dustmann, Christian, 2001. "Return Migration, Wage Differentials, and the Optimal Migration Duration," IZA Discussion Papers 264, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Galor, Oded & Stark, Oded, 1991. "The probability of return migration, migrants' work effort, and migrants' performance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 399-405, April.
  6. Dustmann, Christian, 1999. " Temporary Migration, Human Capital, and Language Fluency of Migrants," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 101(2), pages 297-314, June.
  7. Blau, Francine D. & Kahn, Lawrence M. & Papps, Kerry L., 2008. "Gender, Source Country Characteristics and Labor Market Assimilation among Immigrants: 1980-2000," IZA Discussion Papers 3725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Hill, John K., 1987. "Immigrant decisions concerning duration of stay and migratory frequency," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 221-234, February.
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  10. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn & Joan Y. Moriarty & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "The Role of the Family in Immigrants' Labor-Market Activity: Evidence from the United States," NBER Working Papers 9051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Cobb-Clark, Deborah & Crossley, Thomas F., 2004. "Revisiting the family investment hypothesis," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 373-393, June.
  12. Dustmann, Christian, 1994. "Differences in the Labour Market Behaviour Between Temporary and Permanent Migrant Women," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 947, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Guillermina Jasso & Mark Rosenzweig, 1982. "Estimating the emigration rates of legal immigrants using administrative and survey data: The 1971 cohort of immigrants to the United States," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 279-290, August.
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  15. Mincer, Jacob, 1978. "Family Migration Decisions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 749-73, October.
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  17. Lumsdaine, Robin L. & Mitchell, Olivia S., 1999. "New developments in the economic analysis of retirement," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 49, pages 3261-3307 Elsevier.
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  19. Osili, Una Okonkwo, 2007. "Remittances and savings from international migration: Theory and evidence using a matched sample," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 446-465, July.
  20. Christian Dustmann, 2003. "Children and return migration," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 815-830, November.
  21. Dustmann, Christian & Kirchkamp, Oliver, 2001. "The Optimal Migration Duration and Activity Choice after Re-migration," IZA Discussion Papers 266, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  22. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London 0702, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  23. Augustin De Coulon & François-Charles Wolff, 2005. "Immigrants at retirement: stay/return or 'va-et-vient'?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library 19890, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  24. de Coulon, Augustin & Wolff, François-Charles, 2006. "The Location of Immigrants at Retirement: Stay/Return or ‘Va-et-Vient’?," IZA Discussion Papers 2224, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  29. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence from the UK," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, London School of Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 236-256, 06.
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Cited by:
  1. Christian Dustmann & Joseph-Simon Görlach, 2014. "Selective Outmigration and the Estimation of Immigrants' Earnings Profiles," CESifo Working Paper Series 4617, CESifo Group Munich.

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