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Should the Government Be in the Banking Business? The Role of State-Owned and Development Banks

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  • Eduardo Levy Yeyati
  • Alejandro Micco
  • Ugo Panizza

Abstract

This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the role of state-owned banks and also presents some new results and a robustness analysis. The paper shows that state-owned banks located in developing countries have fiscal costs because they are characterized by lower returns than comparable privately owned banks (on the other hand, there is no evidence that state-owned banks located in industrial countries are less profitable than their private counterparts). We then point out that this evidence cannot be used as an argument against the existence of state-owned banks, as this low profitability might stem from state-owned banks’ activity on projects characterized by low private sector investment and high social return. While we find no evidence that the presence of state-owned banks promotes economic growth or financial development, we also find that the evidence that state-owned banks lead to lower growth and financial development is not as strong as previously thought.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4379.

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Date of creation: Nov 2004
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4379

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  1. Bonin, John P. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wachtel, Paul, 2004. "Privatization matters: Bank efficiency in transition countries," BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2004, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  2. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopezde-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," NBER Working Papers 7620, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 1999. "Does deposit insurance increase banking system stability ? An empirical investigation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2247, The World Bank.
  4. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  5. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1998. "Determinants of commercial bank interest margins and profitability : some international evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1900, The World Bank.
  6. Hart, Oliver & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. "The Proper Scope of Government: Theory and an Application to Prisons," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1127-61, November.
  7. Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2002. "Financial development, property rights, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2924, The World Bank.
  8. Clarke, George R G & Cull, Robert, 2002. "Political and Economic Determinants of the Likelihood of Privatizing Argentine Public Banks," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(1), pages 165-97, April.
  9. Beck, Thorsten & Crivelli, Juan Miguel & Summerhill, William, 2005. "State bank transformation in Brazil - choices and consequences," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3619, The World Bank.
  10. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande, 2003. "Do rural banks matter? evidence from the Indian social banking experiment," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2244, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  11. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1998. "The Quality of Goverment," NBER Working Papers 6727, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Sapienza, Paola, 2004. "The effects of government ownership on bank lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 357-384, May.
  13. de Aghion, Beatriz Armendariz, 1999. "Development banking," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 83-100, February.
  14. Santiago Fernández de Lis & Jorge Martínez Pagés & Jesús Saurina, 2000. "Credit Growth, Problem Loans and Credit Risk Provisioning in Spain," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0018, Banco de Espa�a.
  15. Kane, Edward J, 1977. "Good Intentions and Unintended Evil: The Case against Selective Credit Allocation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 9(1), pages 55-69, February.
  16. Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "State versus Private Ownership," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 133-150, Fall.
  17. E. Gerald Corrigan, 1982. "Are banks special?," Annual Report, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  18. Santiago Fernández de Lis & Jorge Martínez Pagés & Jesús Saurina, 2000. "Credit Growth, Problem Loans and Credit Risk Provisioning in Spain," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0018, Banco de Espa�a.
  19. George J. Stigler, 1967. "Imperfections in the Capital Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 287.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Francisco, Manuela & Mascaro, Yira & Mendoza, Juan Carlos & Yaron, Jacob, 2008. "Measuring the performance and achievement of social objectives of development finance institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4506, The World Bank.
  2. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza & Monica Yañez, 2005. "Bank Ownership and Performance Does Politics Matter?," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 356, Central Bank of Chile.
  3. Alexandre Rands Barros, 2005. "The Impact Of State Owned Banks On Interest Rates Spread," Anais do XXXIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 33th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 041, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  4. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza & Mónica Yañez, 2004. "Bank Ownership and Performance," IDB Publications 6685, Inter-American Development Bank.
  5. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza, 2004. "Propiedad de la banca y conducta crediticia," Research Department Publications 4386, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  6. Frey, Leo & Volz, Ulrich, 2011. "Regional Financial Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa - An Empirical Examination of its Effects on Financial Market Development," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 29, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  7. Lazzarini, Sergio G. & Musacchio, Aldo, 2010. "Leviathan as a Minority Shareholder: A Study of Equity Purchases by the Brazilian National Development Bank (BNDES), 1995-2003," Insper Working Papers wpe_221, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
  8. Enrica Detragiache & Poonam Gupta & Thierry Tressel, 2006. "Foreign Banks in Poor Countries," IMF Working Papers 06/18, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Pietro Calice, 2013. "Working Paper 174 - African Development Finance Institutions: Unlocking the Potential," Working Paper Series 470, African Development Bank.
  10. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza, 2004. "Bank Ownership and Lending Behavior," IDB Publications 6686, Inter-American Development Bank.
  11. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza & Mónica Yañez, 2004. "Propiedad y desempeño de la banca," Research Department Publications 4382, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  12. Mathias Schmit & Thierry Denuit & Laurent Gheeraert & Cédric Warny, 2011. "Roles, Missions and Business Models of Public Financial Institutions in Europe," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2011/5.
  13. Simone Miyuki Hirakawa & Rodrigo De Losso da Silveira Bueno, 2011. "Does location matter toexplain loan interest rates? Evidence from Brazilian local bankingmarkets," Anais do XXXVII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 37th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 127, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  14. Eva Terberger, 2005. "Die Struktur des Finanzsystems und der Finanzierungszugang für kleine Unternehmen," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(4), pages 75-91.

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