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Job Change and Job Stability Among Less-Skilled Young Workers

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  • Harry J. Holzer
  • Robert J. LaLonde

Abstract

In this paper we review evidence from previous studies of job and employment instability among less-educated young workers, and we provide some new evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our results indicate that early employment instability contributes somewhat to the low levels of employment observed among high school dropouts, especially females. Important determinants of job stability include the cognitive skills of the workers themselves (as measured by math test scores); current or previous experience and job tenure; and a variety of job characteristics, including starting wages, occupation and industry. Job instability among female dropouts seems to be strongly related to fertility history and marital status. Some implications for policy, especially welfare reform, are discussed as well.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago in its series Working Papers with number 9928.

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Date of creation: Dec 1999
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Handle: RePEc:har:wpaper:9928

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Related research

Keywords: youth; job stability; employment; welfare reform; labor market;

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References

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Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Ronald Ferguson & Randall Filer, 1986. "Do Better Jobs Make Better Workers? Absenteeism from Work Among Inner-City Black Youths," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 261-298 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Light, Audrey & Ureta, Manuelita, 1995. "Early-Career Work Experience and Gender Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(1), pages 121-54, January.
  3. Harry J. Holzer, 1994. "Black employment problems: New evidence, old questions," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(4), pages 699-722.
  4. Richard B. Freeman & David A. Wise, 1982. "The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature Causes and Consequences," NBER Chapters, in: The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, pages 1-16 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. John Bound & Harry J. Holzer, 1991. "Industrial Shifts, Skills Levels, and the Labor Market for White and Black Males," NBER Working Papers 3715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Cameron, Stephen V & Heckman, James J, 1993. "The Nonequivalence of High School Equivalents," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(1), pages 1-47, January.
  7. Linda Leighton & Jacob Mincer, 1982. "Labor Turnover and Youth Unemployment," NBER Chapters, in: The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, pages 235-276 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. H. J. Holzer, . "Will Employers Hire Welfare Recipients? Recent Survey Evidence from Michigan," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1177-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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  13. Juhn, Chinhui, 1992. "Decline of Male Labor Market Participation: The Role of Declining Market Opportunities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 79-121, February.
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  15. Farber, Henry S, 1994. "The Analysis of Interfirm Worker Mobility," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(4), pages 554-93, October.
  16. Arline Geronimus & Sanders Korenman, 1993. "The socioeconomic costs of teenage childbearing: Evidence and interpretation," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 281-290, May.
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  19. Francine D. Blau & Larry M. Kahn, 1981. "Race and sex differences in quits by young workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(4), pages 563-577, July.
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  21. David Neumark, 1998. "Youth Labor Markets in the U.S.: Shopping Around vs. Staying Put," NBER Working Papers 6581, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, 1992. "Quantitative Literacy and the Likelihood of Employment among Young Adults in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(2), pages 313-328.
  23. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1999. "Changing Inequality In Markets For Workplace Amenities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1085-1123, November.
  24. David T. Ellwood, 1982. "Teenage Unemployment: Permanent Scars or Temporary Blemishes?," NBER Chapters, in: The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, pages 349-390 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Ham, John C & LaLonde, Robert J, 1996. "The Effect of Sample Selection and Initial Conditions in Duration Models: Evidence from Experimental Data on Training," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 64(1), pages 175-205, January.
  26. Harry J. Holzer, 1984. "Black Youth Nonemployment: Duration and Job Search," NBER Working Papers 1276, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Chinhui Juhn & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert H. Topel, 1991. "Why Has the Natural Rate of Unemployment Increased over Time?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(2), pages 75-142.
  28. Bronars, Stephen G & Grogger, Jeff, 1994. "The Economic Consequences of Unwed Motherhood: Using Twin Births as a Natural Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1141-56, December.
  29. Bernt Bratsberg & Dek Terrell, 1998. "Experience, Tenure, and Wage Growth of Young Black and White Men," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(3), pages 658-682.
  30. Waldfogel, Jane, 1998. "The Family Gap for Young Women in the United States and Britain: Can Maternity Leave Make a Difference?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(3), pages 505-45, July.
  31. Linda S. Leighton & Jacob Mincer, 1979. "Labor Turnover and Youth Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 0378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Kim B. Clark & Lawrence H. Summers, 1982. "The Dynamics of Youth Unemployment," NBER Chapters, in: The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, pages 199-234 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  33. Jaeger, David A. & Stevens, Ann Huff, 1999. "Is Job Stability in the United States Falling?," IZA Discussion Papers 35, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  34. Light, Audrey & Ureta, Manuelita, 1992. "Panel Estimates of Male and Female Job Turnover Behavior: Can Female Nonquitters Be Identified?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(2), pages 156-81, April.
  35. John Ballen & Richard B. Freeman, 1986. "Transitions between Employment and Nonemployment," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 75-114 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Fredrik Andersson & Harry J. Holzer & Julia Lane, 2007. "Temporary Help Agencies and the Advancement Prospects of Low Earners," NBER Working Papers 13434, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Joanne Lindley & Steven McIntosh, 2008. "A Panel Data Analysis of the Incidence and Impact of Over-education," Working Papers, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics 2008009, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2008.
  3. Eric French & Bhashkar Mazumder & Christopher Taber, 2005. "The changing pattern of wage growth for low skilled workers," Working Paper Series, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP-05-24, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  4. Boockmann, Bernhard & Steffes, Susanne, 2008. "Workers, Firms, or Institutions: What Determines Job Duration for Male Employees in Germany?," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-116, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Kristin F. Butcher & Robert J. LaLonde, 2006. "Female Offenders Use of Social Welfare Programs Before and After Jail and Prison: Does Prison Cause Welfare Dependency?," Working Papers, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago 0718, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  6. Cho, Rosa & LaLonde, Robert J., 2005. "The Impact of Incarceration in State Prison on the Employment Prospects of Women," IZA Discussion Papers 1792, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. H. J. Holzer & M. A. Stoll, . "Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1213-00, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  8. Melissa Radey, 2008. "The Influence of Social Supports on Employment for Hispanic, Black, and White Unmarried Mothers," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 445-460, September.

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