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Black employment problems: New evidence, old questions

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  • Harry J. Holzer

    (Professor of Economics at Michigan State University)

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    Abstract

    This article attempts to review and synthesize some new evidence on the employment problems of young blacks, especially relating to the issues of skill and spatial mismatch, racial discrimination, crime, and immigration. I also discuss various interpretations of these phenomena and highlight the fact that both shifts in demand (that is, employers and jobs) and the characteristics and responses of supply (that is, workers) in the labor market appear to be responsible for recent trends in employment and earnings among young blacks. This implies that government policy should focus directly on demand-side issues (such as job availability) in the short term, and especially on improving the adjustment of the black labor force to these shifts in demand over time.

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.2307/3325494
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.

    Volume (Year): 13 (1994)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 699-722

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    Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:13:y:1994:i:4:p:699-722

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    Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/34787/home

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Kevin Hollenbeck & Richard J. Willke, 1991. "The Employment and Earnings Impacts of the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 91-07, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    2. David Card, 1990. "The impact of the Mariel boatlift on the Miami labor market," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(2), pages 245-257, January.
    3. Anne C. Case & Lawrence F. Katz, 1991. "The Company You Keep: The Effects of Family and Neighborhood on Disadvantaged Youths," NBER Working Papers 3705, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Gary Burtless, 1985. "Are targeted wage subsidies harmful? Evidence from a wage voucher experiment," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 39(1), pages 105-114, October.
    5. Richard B. Freeman & Harry J. Holzer, 1986. "The Black Youth Employment Crisis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free86-1, June.
    6. George J. Borjas, 1992. "National Origin and the Skills of Immigrants in the Postwar Period," NBER Chapters, in: Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, pages 17-48 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Harry J. Holzer, 1986. "Black Youth Nonemployment: Duration and Job Search," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 23-73 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. John M. Abowd & Richard B. Freeman, 1991. "Immigration, Trade and the Labor Market," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abow91-1, June.
    9. Joseph G. Altonji & David Card, 1989. "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Natives," NBER Working Papers 3123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Levy, Frank & Murnane, Richard J, 1992. "U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1333-81, September.
    11. Wayne Vroman, 1990. "Black men's relative earnings: Are the gains illusory?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(1), pages 83-98, October.
    12. Juhn, Chinhui, 1992. "Decline of Male Labor Market Participation: The Role of Declining Market Opportunities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 79-121, February.
    13. Abraham, Katharine G, 1986. "Structural/Frictional vs. Deficient Demand Unemployment: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 273-76, March.
    14. Hanushek, Eric A. & Rivkin, Steven G. & Jamison, Dean T., 1992. "Improving educational outcomes while controlling costs," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 205-238, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Yolanda K. Kodrzycki, 2000. "Discouraged and other marginally attached workers: evidence on their role in the labor market," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 35-40.
    2. Katharine L. Bradbury, 2000. "Rising tide in the labor market: to what degree do expansions benefit the disadvantaged?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 3-33.
    3. Harry J. Holzer & Paul Offner, 2001. "Trends in Employment Outcomes of Young Black Men, 1979-2000," JCPR Working Papers 245, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    4. H. J. Holzer, . "Employer Demand, AFDC Recipients, and Labor Market Policy," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1115-96, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    5. H. J. Holzer & S. Danziger, . "Are Jobs Available for Disadvantaged Workers in Urban Areas?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1157-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    6. Bernard E. Anderson, 2000. "Worker Protection Policies in the New Century," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 207-214, Winter.
    7. H. J. Holzer & R. J. LaLonde, . "Job Change and Job Stability among Less-Skilled Young Workers," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1191-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    8. L. Quillian, . "Migration Patterns and the Growth of High-Poverty Neighborhoods, 1970–1990," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1172-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    9. Glenn C. Loury, 1998. "Discrimination in the Post-Civil Rights Era: Beyond Market Interactions," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 117-126, Spring.

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