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Job decentralization and transportation use in a monocentric city

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  • Vincent Breteau

    ()
    (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - Université Paris-Est - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - IFSTTAR, CGDD - Commissariat Général au Développement Durable - Ministère de l'Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement)

  • Fabien Leurent

    ()
    (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - Université Paris-Est - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - IFSTTAR)

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    Abstract

    Our objective in this paper is twofold: first, we want to give a theoretical founding to empirical findings of several works that emphasize the fact that while distance traveled increases with household location distance from the city center, transportation time tends to decrease, thus offering a strong incentive to sprawl. Second, we want to analyze the impact of job dispersal on city size, overall distance traveled and transportation cost, along with other urban variables, and spatial equity. We therefore develop an extended monocentric model of city taking into account employment dispersal and varying unit commuting costs. Using this model, we show that under specific conditions including employment dispersal and high marginal transportation cost around city center, the distance traveled by households from home to workplace increases with their distance from the city center, while private transportation costs they endure decrease. Then, based on a surplus analysis, we show that city size moderately increases with the level of employment dispersal, while overall home-to-work distance traveled decreases, suggesting that job decentralization might entail savings in social costs of transportation. However, our findings show that such dispersal could entail spatial inequity: the households living near the city center could suffer a welfare loss.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-00637406.

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    Date of creation: 01 Nov 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00637406

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637406/en/
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    Related research

    Keywords: Residential location; Urban Sprawl; Job decentralization; Commuting;

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    References

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    1. McMillen, Daniel P. & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Suburban Subcenters and Employment Density in Metropolitan Chicago," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 157-180, March.
    2. Marcy Burchfield & Henry G. Overman & Diego Puga & Matthew A. Turner, 2006. "Causes of Sprawl: A Portrait from Space," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 121(2), pages 587-633, May.
    3. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001. "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City," NBER Working Papers 8117, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2ss7x5b1, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Wheaton, William C., 1974. "A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 223-237, October.
    6. Belleflamme,Paul & Peitz,Martin, 2010. "Industrial Organization," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521681599, Fall.
    7. McMillen, Daniel P. & Singell, Larry Jr., 1992. "Work location, residence location, and the intraurban wage gradient," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-213, September.
    8. Eberts, Randall W., 1981. "An empirical investigation of intraurban wage gradients," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 50-60, July.
    9. Michel De Lara & André De Palma & Moez Kilani & Serge Piperno, 2008. "Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France," Working Papers hal-00348439, HAL.
    10. White, Michelle J., 1988. "Location choice and commuting behavior in cities with decentralized employment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 129-152, September.
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