Job decentralization and transportation use in a monocentric city
AbstractOur objective in this paper is twofold: first, we want to give a theoretical founding to empirical findings of several works that emphasize the fact that while distance traveled increases with household location distance from the city center, transportation time tends to decrease, thus offering a strong incentive to sprawl. Second, we want to analyze the impact of job dispersal on city size, overall distance traveled and transportation cost, along with other urban variables, and spatial equity. We therefore develop an extended monocentric model of city taking into account employment dispersal and varying unit commuting costs. Using this model, we show that under specific conditions including employment dispersal and high marginal transportation cost around city center, the distance traveled by households from home to workplace increases with their distance from the city center, while private transportation costs they endure decrease. Then, based on a surplus analysis, we show that city size moderately increases with the level of employment dispersal, while overall home-to-work distance traveled decreases, suggesting that job decentralization might entail savings in social costs of transportation. However, our findings show that such dispersal could entail spatial inequity: the households living near the city center could suffer a welfare loss.
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Date of creation: 01 Nov 2011
Date of revision:
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Residential location; Urban Sprawl; Job decentralization; Commuting;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-11-14 (All new papers)
- NEP-GEO-2011-11-14 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-URE-2011-11-14 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001.
"Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City,"
NBER Working Papers
8117, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001. "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1912, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Wheaton, William C., 1974. "A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 223-237, October.
- McMillen, Daniel P. & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Suburban Subcenters and Employment Density in Metropolitan Chicago," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 157-180, March.
- Michel De Lara & André De Palma & Moez Kilani & Serge Piperno, 2008. "Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France," Working Papers hal-00348439, HAL.
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