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Segregación ocupacional y diferencias salariales por género en España: 1995-2002

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  • Sara de la Rica

Abstract

Este artículo presenta nueva evidencia sobre el impacto de la segregación ocupacional en la explicación de las diferencias salariales por género en España en 1995 y 2002. Se utilizan datos de la Encuesta de Estructura Salarial (EES-95 y EES-2002), con las que se puede identificar el establecimiento al que cada trabajador pertenece, así como identificar el salario base y los complementos salariales como componentes fundamentales del salario total. El primer resultado derivado del trabajo es que al comparar hombres y mujeres de la misma empresa y ocupación, así como de la misma edad, nivel educativo y tipo de contrato, las diferencias salariales totales ascienden a un 14% a favor de los hombres tanto en 1995 como en el 2002. Estas diferencias se originan especialmente en los complementos salariales, dado que las diferencias en el salario base no superan el 5%, mientras que el diferencial en los complementos salariales asciende al 31% a favor de los hombres. Si aceptamos que hombres y mujeres que trabajan en la misma empresa y ocupación realizan tareas muy parecidas, podríamos concluir que no se cumple el principio de “mismo pago por mismo trabajo”, dada la diferencia salarial encontrada. El segundo resultado del trabajo radica en la importancia de la segregación ocupacional: la segregación de mujeres en empresas y ocupaciones dentro de una misma empresa de baja remuneración contribuye de manera significativa a la explicación de los diferenciales salariales encontrados, sobre todo en términos de menor salario base, y por tanto de categorías profesionales más bajas.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2007-35.

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Date of creation: Nov 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2007-35

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Web page: http://www.fedea.net

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  1. Gubta, Nabanita Datta & Rothstein, Donna S., 2001. "The Impact of Worker and Establishment-level Characteristics on Male-Female Wage Differentials: Evidence from Danish Matched Employee-Employer Data," CLS Working Papers 01-9, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
  2. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1997. "On Measuring Segregation in Samples with Small Units," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 402-09, October.
  3. Amuedo-Dorantes Catalina & De la Rica Sara, 2006. "The Role of Segregation and Pay Structure on the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data for Spain," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-34, April.
  4. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
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  10. Amanda Gosling & Thomas Lemieux, 2001. "Labour Market Reforms and Changes in Wage Inequality in the United Kingdom and the United States," NBER Working Papers 8413, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  14. Sara de la Rica & Arantza Ugidos, 1995. "¿Son las diferencias en capital humano determinantes en las diferencias salariales observadas entre hombres y mujeres?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 19(3), pages 395-414, September.
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