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Segregación ocupacional y diferencias salariales por género en España: 1995-2002

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  • Sara de la Rica

Abstract

Este artículo presenta nueva evidencia sobre el impacto de la segregación ocupacional en la explicación de las diferencias salariales por género en España en 1995 y 2002. Se utilizan datos de la Encuesta de Estructura Salarial (EES-95 y EES-2002), con las que se puede identificar el establecimiento al que cada trabajador pertenece, así como identificar el salario base y los complementos salariales como componentes fundamentales del salario total. El primer resultado derivado del trabajo es que al comparar hombres y mujeres de la misma empresa y ocupación, así como de la misma edad, nivel educativo y tipo de contrato, las diferencias salariales totales ascienden a un 14% a favor de los hombres tanto en 1995 como en el 2002. Estas diferencias se originan especialmente en los complementos salariales, dado que las diferencias en el salario base no superan el 5%, mientras que el diferencial en los complementos salariales asciende al 31% a favor de los hombres. Si aceptamos que hombres y mujeres que trabajan en la misma empresa y ocupación realizan tareas muy parecidas, podríamos concluir que no se cumple el principio de “mismo pago por mismo trabajo”, dada la diferencia salarial encontrada. El segundo resultado del trabajo radica en la importancia de la segregación ocupacional: la segregación de mujeres en empresas y ocupaciones dentro de una misma empresa de baja remuneración contribuye de manera significativa a la explicación de los diferenciales salariales encontrados, sobre todo en términos de menor salario base, y por tanto de categorías profesionales más bajas.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2007-35.

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Date of creation: Nov 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2007-35

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Web page: http://www.fedea.net

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  1. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
  2. Kenneth R Troske & Kimberly N Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark, 1998. "New Evidence On Sex Segregation And Sex Differences In Wages From Matched Employee-Employer Data," Working Papers, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau 98-18, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  3. Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, . "Race and Gender in the Labor Market," IPR working papers, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University 98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  4. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1997. "On Measuring Segregation in Samples with Small Units," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 402-09, October.
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  7. Erica L. Groshen, 1991. "The Structure of the Female/Male Wage Differential: Is It Who You Are, What You Do, or Where You Work?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(3), pages 457-472.
  8. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  9. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Donna S. Rothstein, 2005. "The Impact of Worker and Establishment-level Characteristics on Male-Female Wage Differentials: Evidence from Danish Matched Employee-Employer Data," LABOUR, CEIS, CEIS, vol. 19(1), pages 1-34, 03.
  10. Sara de la Rica & Arantza Ugidos, 1995. "¿Son las diferencias en capital humano determinantes en las diferencias salariales observadas entre hombres y mujeres?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, Fundación SEPI, vol. 19(3), pages 395-414, September.
  11. Meyersson Milgrom, Eva M & Petersen, Trond & Snartland, Vemund, 2001. " Equal Pay for Equal Work? Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with Norway and the U.S," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 103(4), pages 559-83, December.
  12. Amuedo-Dorantes Catalina & De la Rica Sara, 2006. "The Role of Segregation and Pay Structure on the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data for Spain," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-34, April.
  13. Macpherson, David A & Hirsch, Barry T, 1995. "Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women's Jobs Pay Less?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(3), pages 426-71, July.
  14. Johnson, George & Solon, Gary, 1986. "Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1117-25, December.
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