Self-employed or employee, full-time or part-time? Gender differences in the determinants and conditions for self-employment in Europe and the US
AbstractRecent research on self-employment has emphasised the specific dynamic of the rise of female entrepreneurship. But self-employment is still predominated by men. Only about 25-30% of the self-employed are women and the female self-employment rate is often only half as high as the male self-employment rate. This ratio is rather similar and persisting in most European countries although self-employment is discussed as an attractive option of female labour since it is characterised by a high degree of autonomy and flexibility. In order to assess the flexibility which self-employment might offer, the paper regards the determinants and conditions for self-employment emphasising the differences between part-time and full-time work. The empirical analysis is based on the Labour Force Surveys from five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the UK) and the Current Population Survey from the US. The comparison investigates how the institutional framework, which is set by welfare state provisions to combine family and work, influences the assumed link between need for flexibility and self-employment. The results show that in fact self-employment seems to offer more flexibility to combine family and work, but also, that there is variation between countries with different institutional settings
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by MZES in its series MZES Working Papers with number 38.
Date of creation: 11 Oct 2001
Date of revision:
employment policy; France; gender policy; Germany; Italy; Sweden; U.K.; welfare state;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David G. Blanchflower, 2000.
"Self-Employment in OECD Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lombard, Karen V, 2001. "Female Self-Employment and Demand for Flexible, Nonstandard Work Schedules," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 214-37, April.
- Boden, Richard Jr., 1996. "Gender and self-employment selection: An empirical assessment," The Journal of Socio-Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 671-682.
- Constant, Amelie F., 2008.
"Businesswomen in Germany and Their Performance by Ethnicity: It Pays to Be Self-Employed,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3644, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Amelie F. Constant, 2009. "Businesswomen in Germany and their performance by ethnicity: It pays to be self-employed," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 145-162, May.
- Amelie Constant, 2008. "Businesswomen in Germany and Their Performance by Ethnicity: It Pays to Be Self-Employed," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 815, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Furdas, Marina & Kohn, Karsten, 2010. "What's the Difference?! Gender, Personality, and the Propensity to Start a Business," IZA Discussion Papers 4778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gottschall, Karin & Kroos, Daniela, 2003. "Self-employment in Germany and the UK: Labor market regulation, risk-management and gender in comparative perspective," Working papers of the ZeS 13/2003, University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS).
- Constant, Amelie F., 2004. "Immigrant versus Native Businesswomen: Proclivity and Performance," IZA Discussion Papers 1234, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Betzelt, Sigrid, 2002. "Soziale Sicherung 'neuer' Selbständiger: Reformperspektiven im Spiegel europäischer Nachbarstaaten," Working papers of the ZeS 10/2002, University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS).
- Wagner, Joachim, 2004.
"What a Difference a Y Makes: Female and Male Nascent Entrepreneurs in Germany,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1134, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Joachim Wagner, 2007. "What a Difference a Y makes-Female and Male Nascent Entrepreneurs in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 1-21, January.
- Block, Joern & Kohn, Karsten, 2011.
"Sozialpolitische Ziele der Gründungsförderung am Beispiel von Gründungen aus der Arbeitslosigkeit
[Social policy as a motivation for start-up subsidies: supporting start-ups out of unemployment]," MPRA Paper 30775, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Robert Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2008.
"Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey,"
08-39, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Robert Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2009. "Gender differences in business performance: evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners survey," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 375-395, December.
- Fairlie, Robert W. & Robb, Alicia, 2008. "Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 3718, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fairlie, Robert & Robb, Alicia M., 2009. "Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt8rv5w116, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Anna Kim & Karin Kurz, 2001. "Precarious Employment, Education and Gender: A comparison of Germany and the United Kingdom," MZES Working Papers 39, MZES.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Melbeck).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.