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Soziale Sicherung 'neuer' Selbständiger: Reformperspektiven im Spiegel europäischer Nachbarstaaten

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  • Betzelt, Sigrid
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    Abstract

    Die Gruppe 'neuer Selbständiger' - insbesondere Ein-Personen-Selbständiger des expandierenden Dienstleistungssektors - ist in Deutschland wie in Westeuropa im Zuge des erwerbsstrukturellen Wandels seit längerem stetig gewachsen. Dennoch sind (Allein-)Selbständige bislang nicht in das deutsche Sozialversicherungssystem einbezogen, da dieses lediglich auf das traditionelle (männliche) 'Normalarbeitsverhältnis' angelegt ist. Es schließt damit die selbständig Erwerbstätigen neuen Typs aus, obwohl sie ähnlich wie Arbeitnehmer auf den Verkauf ihrer Arbeitskraft angewiesen sind und damit vielfach sogar geringere Einkommen als diese erzielen. Insbesondere für die längerfristige Absicherung im Alter besteht daher im Zuge der Flexibilisierung von Arbeits- und Lebensverhältnissen sozialpolitischer Reformbedarf. Das Arbeitspapier diskutiert diesen Bedarf ausgehend von der besonderen Erwerbssituation Selbständiger im Kulturbereich. Für sie wurde dank spezifischer Konstellationen mit der Künstlersozialversicherung (KSK) eine eigene wohlfahrtsstaatliche Sicherungsinstitution geschaffen. Diese ist unter verschärften Marktbedingungen jedoch nur begrenzt tauglich für eine Ausweitung auf alle 'neuen Selbständigen'. Diskutiert werden daher verschiedene Optionen der sozialen Alterssicherung Selbständiger anhand eines Überblicks über grundlegende Systemunterschiede in einigen europäischen Ländern, wobei auf vier Modelle verschiedener wohlfahrtsstaatlicher Traditionen näher eingegangen wird: Dänemark und Schweiz als 'Grundsicherungsmodelle' einerseits, Frankreich und Österreich als dem deutschen Sozialversicherungstyp vergleichbare Modelle andererseits. Gemeinsam ist allen Länderbeispielen der obligatorische Einbezug Selbständiger zumindest in eine Basissicherung zur Vermeidung von Altersarmut. In einem vorläufigen Fazit werden die Ergebnisse der Länderanalysen auf die bundesdeutsche Situation bezogen und für eine umfassende, solidarisch angelegte Lösung plädiert. -- The number of 'new self-employed', particularly single person self-employed in the expanding services sector, has been growing for the last decades across western Europe due to labour market changes. Yet in Germany, this group has not been integrated in the general system of social insurance since it is based on the traditional (male) 'standard employment relationship'. It excludes the new type of self-employed in spite of their dependence on selling their work force like 'normal' workers, implying a similar need for safeguarding. Hence, social reforms are imperative, particularly with respect to the long-term security of old age in view of increasing flexibility of work and life. The working paper discusses these requirements, starting from an analysis of the special situation of cultural professions. For this group, a special branch of social insurance has been established in a certain historical constellation (Künstlersozialversicherung - KSK). Yet under exacerbated market conditions this institution is only of limited use for a general expansion to all 'new self-employed'. Therefore, several diverse options are examined for integrating the self-employed into pension schemes, giving a short overview of fundamental variances in some European countries. Four models of different welfare traditions are discussed more deeply: Denmark and Switzerland as more or less 'basic security models' on the one hand, France and Austria as Bismarck-types of social insurance systems on the other. Common ground of all examples is the mandatory inclusion of self-employed at least in the basic system to avoid poverty of age. As a provisional conclusion, the author connects the results of the national comparisons with the German situation and advocates a comprehensive, solidary solution.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS) in its series Working papers of the ZeS with number 10/2002.

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    Date of creation: 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:zeswps:102002

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    1. Gottschall, Karin & Betzelt, Sigrid, 2001. "Alleindienstleister im Berufsfeld Kultur: Versuch einer erwerbssoziologischen Konzeptualisierung," Working papers of the ZeS 18/2001, University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS).
    2. Henning Lohmann, 2001. "Self-employed or employee, full-time or part-time? Gender differences in the determinants and conditions for self-employment in Europe and the US," MZES Working Papers 38, MZES.
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