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Éducation et marchés du travail à Brazzaville et Pointe Noire (Congo-Brazzaville)

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  • Mathias Kuepie

    ()
    (CEPS/INSTEAD, UMR DIAL IRD Université Paris Dauphine)

  • Christophe Nordman

    ()
    (IRD, UMR DIAL Université Paris Dauphine)

Abstract

(english) The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of education on labor market entry, particularly on earnings in the two largest cities of the Republic of Congo. We examine firsthand data from the 2009 Congo's Employment and Informal Sector Survey (Enquête sur l’emploi et le secteur informel au Congo - EESIC) from a representative sample of about 3000 households in the cities of Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Results indicate that education is relatively widespread in both cities, with an average of about ten years of schooling. This phenomenon goes back a relatively long time, since even for the over 50 generations, more than eight out of ten adults completed primary school. The labor market itself is characterized by a large informal sector (where more than six out of ten working age people have an activity), which could potentially become a poverty trap and reflects high unemployment (especially among the youth), increasing with the level of education on the market. The Congolese urban labor market is also specifically characterized by the weight of the public sector, where almost one out of three people employed in the capital (Brazzaville) and a little over one out of five for both cities are employed. Therefore, the formal private sector is reduced to its congruent proportion. Multivariate analyses of the risk of unemployment and sectoral choice confirm that young people suffer greatly from lack of professional insertion: for most of these youth, their only choice is to remain unemployed or join the informal sector. To measure the specific impact of education on entry into various segments of the labor market, particularly on activity generated earnings, we directly address issues related to sample selection (related to the endogenous distribution among sectors) and the endogeneity of the education variable in the earnings function. Another important methodological challenge relates to the definition of the functional shape of the link that exists between earnings and the number of years of schooling. In the context of this study, we propose a piecewise linear function that allows variation in the marginal return to education when graduating from one educational cycle to another. With this specification, it is possible to emphasize the convexity of education returns; in other words, the last years in secondary and tertiary schooling yield the highest returns, while those of primary education are generally lower. This convexity is also apparent in the informal sector, where education (albeit on another scale) is also an important determinant of earnings. These results point to employment and poverty alleviation policies in the Republic of Congo. Policy proposals are thus developed in that regard throughout the study. _________________________________ (français) L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyser l’impact de l’éducation sur l’insertion sur le marché du travail et en particulier sur les rémunérations dans les deux principales métropoles de la République du Congo. Nous exploitons les données de première main de l’Enquête sur l’Emploi et le Secteur Informel au Congo (EESIC) de 2009 portant sur environ 3000 ménages représentatifs des villes de Brazzaville et de Pointe-Noire. Les résultats montrent que l’éducation est relativement répandue dans les deux villes, puisque le niveau moyen tourne autour de dix années d’études. Il s’agit d’un phénomène relativement ancien, car même dans les générations de plus de 50 ans, plus de huit adultes sur dix ont achevé le cycle primaire. Quant au marché du travail, il est marqué par une hypertrophie du secteur informel (plus de six actifs sur dix y exercent), qui constitue potentiellement une trappe à pauvreté et reflète un chômage élevé (surtout chez les jeunes) et croissant avec le niveau d’étude sur le marché. Le marché du travail urbain congolais présente aussi une caractéristique spécifique qui est le poids du secteur public, qui emploie presqu’un actif sur trois dans la capitale (Brazzaville) et un peu plus d’un sur cinq dans l’ensemble des deux villes. Le secteur privé formel y est donc réduit à la portion congrue. Des analyses multivariées sur le risque de chômage et l’orientation sectorielle confirment que les jeunes sont très défavorisés en matière d’insertion professionnelle : ces jeunes n’ont, pour la plupart, que le choix entre le chômage et le secteur informel. Pour mesurer l’effet propre du capital éducatif sur l’insertion dans les différents segments du marché du travail et en particulier sur les revenus de l’activité, nous abordons de front les problèmes de sélection d’échantillon (liée à l’allocation endogène entre les secteurs) et d’endogénéité de la variable d’éducation dans la fonction de revenu. Un autre défi méthodologique important concerne la spécification de la forme fonctionnelle du lien entre rémunération et années d’éducation. Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous proposons une fonction linéaire par morceaux, qui permet au rendement marginal de l’éducation de varier quand on passe d’un cycle à l’autre. Cette spécification permet de mettre en évidence le caractère convexe des rendements de l’éducation, c'est-à-dire que les dernières années du lycée et du supérieur sont les plus rentables alors que les rendements du primaire sont généralement plus faibles. Cette convexité s’observe même dans le secteur informel dans lequel l’éducation (certes à une autre échelle) est également un important déterminant des gains. Ces résultats interpellent les politiques d’emploi et de lutte contre la pauvreté à Congo-Brazzaville. Des propositions de politiques sont ainsi développées dans ce sens tout au long de l’étude.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2011/11.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
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Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201111

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Keywords: Participation au marché du travail; Chômage; Rendements de l’éducation; Fonctions de gains; Secteur informel; Congo-Brazzaville; Labor market participation; Unemployment; Returns to education; Earnings functions; Informal sector; Congo-Brazzaville.;

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