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Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Philippe De Vreyer
  • François Roubaud

Abstract

The population of Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 854 million in 2010. Annual population growth averaged 2.5 percent, with a relatively high sustained fertility rate, fostered by the fact that two-thirds of the population is under 25. The region has the highest proportion of poor people in the world, with 47.5 percent of its population living on less than $1.25 a day, as measured in terms of purchasing power parity in 2008. It is also the only region in which the number of poor is still rising. This book contributes to knowledge on the functioning of urban labor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa by investigating following questions: which individuals lack access to employment or are employed beneath their capacities; does education improve working conditions?; what opportunities does the labor market offer to climb the social ladder?; is the lack of good-quality jobs for adults and the poverty it implies one of the reasons for the prevalence of child labor?; do women and ethnic minorities have the same access to the labor market as everyone else?; how does the formal sector live alongside the informal sector?; what role does migration play in the functioning of labor markets?;and are there traits common to all urban labor markets in Africa, or is each country different? This book attempts to answer these questions by studying 11 cities in 10 countries (table O.1). Comparative studies are often based on disparate measurement instruments, which risk marring the validity of the findings. This study is based on a set of perfectly comparable surveys. The study also covers a number of topics (migration, child labor, job satisfaction, discrimination, and work after retirement) in addition to the topics covered by Lachaud (unemployment, access to employment and mobility, segmentation, labor supply, and poverty). This book is divided in five parts. The first is comparative analysis of urban labor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa; second is job quality and labor market conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa; third is dimensions of labor market inequalities; fourth is the key coping mechanisms and private responses; and fifth is moving forward.

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Bibliographic Info

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This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 15808 and published in 2013.

ISBN: 978-0-8213-9781-7
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:15808

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Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
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Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
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Related research

Keywords: Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Governance - Youth and Governance Labor and Employment Law Law and Development;

References

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  1. Anke E. Hoeffler, 2000. "The Augmented Solow Model and the African Growth Debate," CID Working Papers 36, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  2. Huu Chi Nguyen & Christophe Nordman & François Roubaud, 2011. "Who Suffers the Penalty? A Panel Data Analysis of Earnings Gaps in Vietnam," Working Papers DT/2011/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  3. Glick, Peter & Roubaud, François, 2006. "Export Processing Zone Expansion in Madagascar: What are the Labor Market and Gender Impacts?," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4457, Paris Dauphine University.
  4. Fox, Louise & Pimhidzai, Obert, 2011. "Is informality welfare-enhancing structural transformation ? evidence from Uganda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5866, The World Bank.
  5. Dial, 2007. "Youth and labour markets in Africa, A literature review," Working Papers DT/2007/02, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  6. Shantayanan Devarajan & William R. Easterly & Howard Pack, 2002. "Low Investment is Not the Constraint on African Development," Working Papers 13, Center for Global Development.
  7. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
  8. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Rakotomanana, Faly & Roubaud, François, 2012. "Informal versus Formal: A Panel Data Analysis of Earnings Gaps in Madagascar," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10601, Paris Dauphine University.
  9. Goux, Dominique & Maurin, Eric, 2006. "Close Neighbours Matter: Neighbourhood Effects on Early Performance at School," IZA Discussion Papers 2095, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Wachsberger, Jean-Michel & Roubaud, François & Razafindrakoto, Mireille, 2012. "Travailler dans le secteur informel : choix ou contrainte ? Une analyse de la satisfaction dans l'emploi au Vietnam," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/11229, Paris Dauphine University.
  11. Cling, Jean-Pierre & Razafindrakoto, Mireille & Roubaud, Francois, 2005. "Export processing zones in Madagascar: a success story under threat?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 785-803, May.
  12. Paolo Falco & Andrew Kerr & Neil Rankin & Justin Sandefur & Francis Teal, 2010. "The Returns to formality and Informality in Urban Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2010-03, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  13. Michael Grimm & Rolph van der Hoeven & Jann Lay & Francois Roubaud, 2012. "Neubewertung des informellen Sektors und Unternehmertums in Sub-Sahara-Afrika," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 81(3), pages 69-83.
  14. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter & Reardon, Thomas, 2010. "The Rural Non-farm Economy: Prospects for Growth and Poverty Reduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1429-1441, October.
  15. Peter Glick & François Roubaud, 2006. "Export Processing Zone Expansion in Madagascar: What are the Labour Market and Gender Impacts?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 15(4), pages 722-756, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Mathias Kuepie & Christophe Nordman, 2011. "Éducation et marchés du travail à Brazzaville et Pointe Noire (Congo-Brazzaville)," Working Papers DT/2011/11, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  2. Szirmai, Adam & Gebreeyesus, Mulu & Guadagno, Francesca & Verspagen, Bart, 2013. "Promoting productive employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature," MERIT Working Papers 062, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

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