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The Impact of Urban Enterprise Zones on Establishments' Location Decisions: Evidence from French ZFUs

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  • Mayer, Thierry
  • Mayneris, Florian
  • Py, Loriane

Abstract

In this paper, we study the impact of a French enterprise zones program---the ``Zones Franches Urbaines'' (ZFUs) policy---on establishments' location decisions. Our empirical analysis is based on a micro-geographic dataset which provides exhaustive information on the location of establishments in France over the period 2000-2007 at the census block level. We use a difference in difference approach combining spatial and time differencing. We also do triple difference estimations, using the fact that targeted urban areas have been selected in different waves over time. Finally, we exploit a discontinuity in the eligibility criteria of the policy as an exogenous source of variation to estimate the impact of the treatment. Our results show that the French ZFU policy has a positive and sizable impact on location choices. However, we also find that the policy mostly generates displacement effects, in particular through relocation of firms from the un-treated to the treated part within municipalities. Finally, the impact is shown to be highly heterogeneous across zones, firms and industries. The overall cost of moving establishments within municipalities is relatively high.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 9074.

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Date of creation: Aug 2012
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:9074

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Keywords: enterprise zones; firm location;

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References

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  1. Gobillon, Laurent & Magnac, Thierry & Selod, Harris, 2010. "Do Unemployed Workers Benefit from Enterprise Zones? The French Experience," CEPR Discussion Papers 8084, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Chiara Criscuolo & Ralf Martin & Henry Overman & John Van Reenen, 2012. "The Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy," NBER Working Papers 17842, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Matias Busso & Jesse Gregory & Patrick Kline, 2011. "Assessing the Incidence and Efficiency of a Prominent Place Based Policy," Working Papers 11-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  4. Daniele Bondonio, 2003. "Do Tax Incentives Affect Local Economic Growth? What Mean Impacts Miss in the Analysis of Enterprise Zone Policies," Working Papers 03-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. P. Givord & R. Rathelot & P. Sillard, 2011. "Place-based tax exemptions and displacement effects: An evaluation of the Zones Franches Urbaines program," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2011-13, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
  6. Crozet, M. & Mayer, T. & Micchielli, J.L., 2000. "How Do Firms Agglomerate? A Study of FDI in France?," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.50, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  7. Roland Rathelot & Patrick Sillard, 2008. "The Importance of Local Corporate Taxes in Business Location Decisions: Evidence From French Micro Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(527), pages 499-514, 03.
  8. Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel & Simpson, Helen, 2007. "Firm location decisions, regional grants and agglomeration externalities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3-4), pages 413-435, April.
  9. Richard Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2009. "Tax reform, delocation and heterogeneous firms," NBER Working Papers 15109, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Richard Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2005. "Heterogeneous Firms, Agglomeration and Economic Geography: Spatial Selection and Sorting," NBER Working Papers 11650, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Boarnet, Marlon G. & Bogart, William T., 1996. "Enterprise Zones and Employment: Evidence from New Jersey," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 198-215, September.
  12. Bondonio, Daniele & Engberg, John, 2000. "Enterprise zones and local employment: evidence from the states' programs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 519-549, September.
  13. Henry Overman & Elias Einio, 2012. "The Effects of Spatially Targeted Enterprise Initiatives: Evidence from UK LEGI," ERSA conference papers ersa12p164, European Regional Science Association.
  14. Anthony Briant & Miren Lafourcade & Benoît Schmutz, 2012. "Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience," PSE Working Papers halshs-00695225, HAL.
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Cited by:
  1. Criscuolo, Chiara & Martin, Ralf & Overman, Henry & Van Reenen, John, 2012. "The Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 6323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Stephen J. Redding & Matthew A. Turner, 2014. "Transportation Costs and the Spatial Organization of Economic Activity," CEP Discussion Papers dp1277, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  3. Chabé-Ferret, Sylvain, 2012. "Matching vs Differencing when Estimating Treatment Effects with Panel Data: the Example of the Effect of Job Training Programs on Earnings," LERNA Working Papers 12.24.381, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
  4. Anthony Briant & Miren Lafourcade & Benoît Schmutz, 2012. "Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience," PSE Working Papers halshs-00695225, HAL.
  5. David Neumark & Helen Simpson, 2014. "Place-Based Policies," NBER Working Papers 20049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Mayneris, F. & Py, L., 2014. "The efficiency of enterprise zone programs: some conflicting results?," Working papers 474, Banque de France.
  7. Kristian Behrens, 2013. "Strength in Numbers? The Weak Effect of Manufacturing Clusters on Canadian Productivity," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 377, April.
  8. R. Alison Felix & James R. Hines, Jr., 2011. "Who offers tax-based business development incentives?," Research Working Paper RWP 11-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  9. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00695225 is not listed on IDEAS

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