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Panel Data Analysis of the Time-Varying Determinants of Corruption

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  • Guillaume R. Fréchette

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Abstract

There is a long history of models attempting to identify the causes of corruption, yet empirical analysis is complicated. Not only is data difficult to obtain and often available only for few countries and a limited number of years, but such estimation involves inherent complexities. This paper focuses on the use of panel data techniques to better identify factors that affect bureaucratic corruption. Furthermore, this paper identifies an endogeneity problem which arises in the analysis of the causes of corruption, and a new instrumental variable is proposed to solve it. To help in this endeavor, a data set is employed which provides information for as many as 135 countries over a span of sixteen years. Results show that neglecting the endogeneity problem leads to severely biased results. Using panel data techniques reveals that the availability of rents is a crucial determinant of corruption and that previous research may have underestimated the economic significance of rents on corruption. Furthermore, corruption is shown to be procyclical. Depuis longtemps, des modèles sont utilisés dans le but de déterminer les causes de la corruption. Toutefois, l’analyse empirique demeure complexe. Qui plus est, les données sont difficiles à recueillir et couvrent souvent un nombre restreint de pays et une période limitée. Ce genre d’évaluation présente aussi des complexités inhérentes. Le présent document met l’accent sur le recours à des techniques de données de panels dans le but de mieux connaître les facteurs qui influent sur la corruption bureaucratique. En outre, cette analyse souligne le problème d’endogénéité qui ressort de l’analyse des causes de la corruption et propose une nouvelle variable instrumentale permettant de contrer celui-ci. Pour faciliter la démarche, ce document utilise un ensemble de données fournissant des renseignements sur au moins 135 pays et pour une période de seize ans. Les résultats indiquent que si le problème d’endogénéité n’est pas pris en compte, les résultats sont sérieusement biaisés. De plus, la corruption est décrite comme étant procyclique.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2006s-28.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2006s-28

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Keywords: corruption; endogeneity; income; rents; corruption; endogénéité;

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  1. Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1992. "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 942-63, September.
  2. Enke, Stephen, 1971. "Economic Consequences of Rapid Population Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 81(324), pages 800-11, December.
  3. Kimberly Ann Elliott, 1997. "Corruption and the Global Economy," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 12.
  4. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
  5. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Mohtadi, Hamid & Roe, Terry L., 2003. "Democracy, rent seeking, public spending and growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(3-4), pages 445-466, March.
  7. Mauro, Paolo, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712, August.
  8. Perkins, Dwight H. & Syrquin, Moshe, 1989. "Large countries: The influence of size," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 32, pages 1691-1753 Elsevier.
  9. Pack, Howard & Pack, Janet Rothenberg, 1990. "Is Foreign Aid Fungible? The Case of Indonesia," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(399), pages 188-94, March.
  10. Treisman, Daniel, 2000. "The causes of corruption: a cross-national study," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 399-457, June.
  11. Aizcorbe, Ana M, 1992. "Procyclical Labour Productivity, Increasing Returns to Labour and Labour Hoarding in Car Assembly Plant Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(413), pages 860-73, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan, 2008. "Illegal Trade in the Iranian Economy: Evidence from a Structural Model," CESifo Working Paper Series 2397, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Liam Wren-Lewis, 2011. "Do Infrastructure Reforms Reduce the Effect of Corruption? Theory and Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2011-026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Patrawart, Kraiyos, 2008. "Can Equality in Education Be A New Anti-Corruption Tool?: Cross-Country Evidence (1990-2005)," MPRA Paper 9665, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Ghulam Shabbir & Mumtaz Anwar, 2007. "Determinants of Corruption in Developing Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 751-764.
  5. Berdiev, Aziz N. & Kim, Yoonbai & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2013. "Remittances and corruption," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 182-185.

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