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La pénurie de travailleurs qualifiés

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  • Claude Montmarquette

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  • Laure Thomas

Abstract

La possibilité d’une pénurie de main-d’œuvre qualifiée représenterait une menace à notre vitalité économique et à notre bien-être, en général. Faut-il réellement s’en inquiéter? D’où émane cette préoccupation? Comment expliquer les pénuries et minimiser leurs fréquences? S’il est possible d’observer à très court terme, une pénurie de main-d’œuvre de travailleurs faiblement ou moyennement qualifiés, l’inquiétude associée au concept de pénurie concerne généralement la main-d’œuvre qualifiée. Par définition, la main-d’œuvre qualifiée nécessite une formation et une durée d’expérience de travail plus importantes que pour la main-d’œuvre non qualifiée. De plus, le capital et les travailleurs non qualifiés sont généralement des substituts, tandis que, dans le cas de la main-d’œuvre qualifiée, le capital et le travail sont complémentaires. C’est pourquoi il est difficile de résoudre rapidement certaines pénuries de travailleurs qualifiés. Les éléments de l’offre de la main-d’œuvre qualifiée sont plus complexes que pour les autres types de main-d’œuvre. Malgré certaines difficultés associées au risque d’investir en capital humain et devant l’incertitude des besoins futurs de main-d’œuvre qualifiée et des lenteurs des ajustements du marché, l’essentiel de nos propos se résume à ceci : la pénurie se résorbe si on laisse les marchés concurrentiels opérer sans entraves. Intervenir pour des motivations politiques avec des solutions naïves ne règlera aucun problème de fond. Nous indiquons comment minimiser le problème de pénurie de main-d’œuvre qui, à court terme, nous apparaît une situation relativement normale et non indûment préoccupante. Les cas particuliers des infirmières et des professeurs d’université, liés à la situation québécoise illustrent nos propos.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Project Reports with number 2005rp-03.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2005
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2005rp-03

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  1. Rainer Winkelmann, 2002. "Why do firms recruit internationally? Result from the IZA International Employer Survey 2000," SOI - Working Papers, Socioeconomic Institute - University of Zurich 0202, Socioeconomic Institute - University of Zurich.
  2. Kathy Cannings & Sophie Mahseredjian & Claude Montmarquette, 1997. "How Do Young People Choose College Majors ?," CIRANO Working Papers, CIRANO 97s-38, CIRANO.
  3. Paul Frijters & Michael Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price, 2004. "Investigating the Quitting Decision of Nurses: Panel Data Evidence from the British National Health Service," CEPR Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University 471, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  4. Jaewoo Ryoo & Sherwin Rosen, 2004. "The Engineering Labor Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(S1), pages S110-S140, February.
  5. Chiha, Yvana A. & Link, Charles R., 2003. "The shortage of registered nurses and some new estimates of the effects of wages on registered nurses labor supply: a look at the past and a preview of the 21st century," Health Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 349-375, June.
  6. Jan Erik Askildsen & Badi H. Baltagi & Tor Helge Holmås, 2003. "Wage policy in the health care sector: a panel data analysis of nurses' labour supply," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(9), pages 705-719.
  7. Shields, Michael A. & Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie E., 2000. "Improving Nurse Retention in the British National Health Service: The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Intentions to Quit," IZA Discussion Papers 118, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Claude Montmarquette & David Boisclair, 2004. "Post-Secondary Educational Institutions’ Adjustment to Labour Market Changes : Major Concerns and Key Research Issues," CIRANO Project Reports 2004rp-16, CIRANO.
  9. Cohen, Malcolm S. & Zaidi, Mahmood A., 1998. "Labor shortages, pay and training in NAFTA countries," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 89-103.
  10. Marcel Boyer & Véronique Le Gallo & Claude Montmarquette, 1999. "Analyse critique des méthodes et instruments actuels de mesure de la prévision de l'offre et de la demande de main-d'oeuvre hautement qualifiée," CIRANO Project Reports 1999rp-13, CIRANO.
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