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The Determinants of International Mobility of Students

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  • Michel Beine
  • Romain Noël
  • Lionel Ragot

Abstract

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, we develop a small theoretical model allowing to identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, we assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. We find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. We also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, we do not find an important role for registration fees (reverse causality, signal of quality, covered by grants).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CEPII research center in its series Working Papers with number 2013-30.

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Date of creation: Sep 2013
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Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2013-30

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Keywords: student mobility; network effect; migration costs; attractiveness policy;

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References

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  1. Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2011. "Globalization, brain drain and development," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1108, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  2. Axel Dreher & Panu Poutvaara, 2005. "Student Flows and Migration: An Empirical Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 1490, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Carla Sa & Raymond Florax & Piet Rietveld, 2004. "Determinants of the Regional Demand for Higher Education in The Netherlands: A Gravity Model Approach," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 375-392.
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  7. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
  8. Van Bouwel, Linda & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2010. "Does university quality drive international student flows?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7657, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. McKenzie, David & Rapoport, Hillel, 2006. "Can migration reduce educational attainment ? Evidence from Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3952, The World Bank.
  10. Donata Bessey, 2007. "International Student Migration to Germany," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0006, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
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  12. Jeffrey Grogger & Gordon H. Hanson, 2008. "Income Maximization and the Selection and Sorting of International Migrants," NBER Working Papers 13821, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, . "Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: winners and losers?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10415, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  14. Antonio Spilimbergo, 2009. "Democracy and Foreign Education," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(1), pages 528-43, March.
  15. Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "On the trade impact of nominal exchange rate volatility," Working Papers 03-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  16. Alexander Haupt & Tim Krieger & Thomas Lange, 2010. "A Note on Brain Gain and Brain Drain: Permanent Migration and Education Policy," CESifo Working Paper Series 3154, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Laura Thissen & Sjef Ederveen, 2006. "Higher education; time for coordination on a European level?," CPB Discussion Paper 68, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  18. Nahid Aslanbeigui & Veronica Montecinos, 1998. "Foreign Students in U.S. Doctoral Programs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 171-182, Summer.
  19. Dennis D. Kimko & Eric A. Hanushek, 2000. "Schooling, Labor-Force Quality, and the Growth of Nations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1184-1208, December.
  20. Mixon, Franklin Jr & Hsing, Yu, 1994. "The determinants of out-of-state enrollments in higher education: A tobit analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 329-335.
  21. Bratsberg, Bernt, 1995. "The incidence of non-return among foreign students in the United States," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 373-384, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús, 2012. "Visa Policies, Networks and the Cliff at the Border," IZA Discussion Papers 7094, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Paula Stephan & Giuseppe Scellato & Chiara Franzoni, 2014. "International Competition for PhDs and Postdoctoral Scholars: What Does (and Does Not) Matter," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 15 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Andrea ARIU & Pasquamaria SQUICCIARINI, 2013. "The Balance of Brains: Corruption and High Skilled Migration," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2013010, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  4. Marina Murat, 2012. "Out of sight, not out of mind. Education networks and international trade," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 087, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics.
  5. Bijwaard, Govert & Wang, Qi, 2013. "Return Migration of Foreign Students," IZA Discussion Papers 7185, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Paula Stephan & Chiara Franzoni & Giuseppe Scellato, 2013. "Choice of Country by the Foreign Born for PhD and Postdoctoral Study: A Sixteen-Country Perspective," NBER Working Papers 18809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Voegtle, Eva Maria & Fulge, Timm, 2013. "The Bologna Process' impact on cross-national student mobility: A multi-method evaluation," TranState Working Papers 179, University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State.
  8. Romuald Méango, 2014. "International Student Migration: A Partial Identification Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 4677, CESifo Group Munich.
  9. Michel Beine & Simone Bertoli & Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga, 2014. "A practitioners' guide to gravity models of international migration," Working Papers 2014-03, FEDEA.

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