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Monetary Policy And Key Unobservables: Evidence From Large Industrial And Selected Inflation-Targeting Countries

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  • Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel
  • Carl E. Walsh

Abstract

Among the variables that play critical roles in the design of monetary policy, several are unobservable. These include such key variables as the neutral real rate of interest, the output gap, and the natural rate of unemployment. While individual central banks have undertaken efforts to estimate these unobservables, the approaches have generally been country specific and have not provided either systematic estimation or comparison across countries. We adopt a common estimation approach, applied to a parsimonious monetary-policy model, to provide consistent estimates of key unobservables for the U.S., the Eurozone, and Japan, and several inflation-targeting countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.K. Doing so allows us to obtain comparable measures of unobservables across a range of countries. We exploit our estimates to investigate issues of commonalities and convergence across countries in these key but unobservable variables.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Central Bank of Chile in its series Working Papers Central Bank of Chile with number 527.

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Date of creation: Oct 2009
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Handle: RePEc:chb:bcchwp:527

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  1. Athanasios Orphanides & Simon van Norden, 1999. "The reliability of output gap estimates in real time," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-38, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Carl Walsh, 2001. "Speed Limit Policies: The Output Gap and Optimal Monetary Policy," CESifo Working Paper Series 609, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2005. "Real wage rigidities and the new Keynesian model," Economics Working Papers 912, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2005.
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  5. Stephen Murchison & Andrew Rennison, 2006. "ToTEM: The Bank of Canada's New Quarterly Projection Model," Technical Reports 97, Bank of Canada.
  6. Julien Garnier & Bjørn-Roger Wilhelmsen, 2009. "The natural rate of interest and the output gap in the euro area: a joint estimation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 297-319, May.
  7. Athanasios Orphanides, 2002. "Monetary-Policy Rules and the Great Inflation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 115-120, May.
  8. Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1994. "Estimating Potential Output as a Latent Variable," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 361-68, July.
  9. Hansen,B.E., 1998. "The grid bootstrap and the autoregressive model," Working papers 26, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  10. Nils Björksten & Özer Karagedikli, 2003. "Neutral real interest rates revisited," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 66, pages 11, September.
  11. repec:cml:incocp:1-03 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. Christopher J. Erceg and Andrew T. Levin, 2001. "Imperfect Credibility and Inflation Persistence," Computing in Economics and Finance 2001 19, Society for Computational Economics.
  13. Hamilton, James D., 1986. "A standard error for the estimated state vector of a state-space model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 387-397, December.
  14. repec:cml:incocp:1-08 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Basistha, Arabinda & Nelson, Charles R., 2007. "New measures of the output gap based on the forward-looking new Keynesian Phillips curve," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 498-511, March.
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