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An Exploration of Activity Scheduling and Rescheduling Processes

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  • Chen, Quizi
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    Abstract

    The objective of this research is to examine processes of activity scheduling and rescheduling by experiments. Activity scheduling processes were examined by using a combination of mail surveys and telephone interviews. It was found that individuals’ schedules are hardly complete. Scheduled activities take place less than 50% of all executed activities. The incompleteness suggests that activity scheduling and execution are a concurrent process and the distiction between is vague. Activities with relatively high level of fixity (e.g., work activity, educational and organizational activities) are more likely to be executed than other activities. Routine activities are no more or less likely to be scheduled than non-routine activities. Attributes of activities differ substantially between scheduling and execution. In particular, the deviation between scheduling and execution in starting time appears to be smaller than that in duration. Two suggestions may be offered: individuals may be able to schedule starting time more precisely than duration or individuals may respond to unexpected events by adjusting activity duration first. Activity rescheduling processes were examined by asking subjects to talk aloud while completing controlled in-lab scenarios. It was found that the actual rescheduling processes deviate greatly from the ideal utility maximization framework. More specifically, it was found that subjects rarely assess the overall situation before rescheduling operations; rarely evaluate multiple alternatives that are available before rescheduling operations; rarely revise previously rescheduled activities; the search for rescheduling is multi-directional, but most forward-moving; and subjects are quite efficient in the process of arriving their final revised schedules. Based on findings on activity rescheduling processes, a structure of activity rescheduling was proposed. The proposed structure adopts Hayes-Roth and Hayes-Roth’s model structure of errand planning in that it consists of several independent cognitive specialists and the flow of operation is not pre-fixed. The theory of active choice set was also proposed, asserting that subjects select which activity to be rescheduled next based upon how recently this activity is assessed.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt9kb4q6vt.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt9kb4q6vt

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    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;

    References

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    1. D Damm & S R Lerman, 1981. "A theory of activity scheduling behavior," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 13(6), pages 703-718, June.
    2. Cardell, N. Scott, 1997. "Variance Components Structures for the Extreme-Value and Logistic Distributions with Application to Models of Heterogeneity," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(02), pages 185-213, April.
    3. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680, October.
    4. Adler, Thomas & Ben-Akiva, Moshe, 1979. "A theoretical and empirical model of trip chaining behavior," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 243-257, September.
    5. Gärling, Tommy & Kwan, Mei-Po & Golledge, Reginald G., 1994. "Computational-process modelling of household activity scheduling," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 355-364, October.
    6. Kitamura, Ryuichi, 1984. "A model of daily time allocation to discretionary out-of-home activities and trips," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 255-266, June.
    7. Kitamura, Ryuichi, 1984. "Incorporating trip chaining into analysis of destination choice," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 67-81, February.
    8. Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1975. "Transcendental Logarithmic Utility Functions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 367-83, June.
    9. Golob, Thomas F., 1990. "The Dynamics of Household Travel Time Expenditures and Car Ownership Decisions," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt2t18b4q9, University of California Transportation Center.
    10. Bhat, Chandra R. & Koppelman, Frank S., 1993. "A conceptual framework of individual activity program generation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 433-446, November.
    11. Chandra Bhat & Rajul Misra, 1999. "Discretionary activity time allocation of individuals between in-home and out-of-home and between weekdays and weekends," Transportation, Springer, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 193-229, May.
    12. Golob, Thomas F., 1990. "The Dynamics of Household Travel Time Expenditures and Car Ownership Decisions," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt1676t0bp, University of California Transportation Center.
    13. T G�rling & T Kal�n & J Romanus & M Selart & B Vilhelmson, 1998. "Computer simulation of household activity scheduling," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 30(4), pages 665-679, April.
    14. Golob, Thomas F. & McNally, Michael G., 1997. "A model of activity participation and travel interactions between household heads," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 177-194, June.
    15. Sean Doherty & Eric Miller, 2000. "A computerized household activity scheduling survey," Transportation, Springer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 75-97, February.
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    Cited by:
    1. Lee, Ming S. & Chung, Jin-Hyuk & McNally, Michael G., 2002. "An Empirical Investigation of the Underlying Behavioral Processes of Trip Chaining," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt2gt6s9s9, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Lee, Ming S. & McNally, Michael G., 2003. "On the structure of weekly activity/travel patterns," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 823-839, December.

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