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Gender and the Labour Market: An International Perspective and the case of Italy

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  • Claudia Olivetti

    ()
    (Boston University and NBER)

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the literature on international di¤erences in the gender wage gap. It then focuses on the Italian case and analyzes di¤erentials in gender wage and employment gaps across regions. The cross-regional variation reproduces the negative correlation between wage and employment gaps observed at the cross-country level. Using the methodology in Olivetti and Petrongolo (2008) the paper shows the importance of sample selection induced by non-employment in explaining the cross-regional variation. The results show that selection-adjusted wage gaps are higher than actual wage gaps in most cases. However, this difference is small in the northern Italian regions and becomes sizeable for central and southern regions. Selection correction can explain from 10% to most of the observed negative cross-regional correlation between wage and employment gaps across genders in Italy.

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Paper provided by Boston University - Department of Economics in its series Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series with number wp2009-010.

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Length: 27
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Handle: RePEc:bos:wpaper:wp2009-010

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  1. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "Unequal pay or unequal employment?: a cross-country analysis of gender gaps," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3660, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  2. Nicole M Fortin, 2005. "Gender Role Attitudes and the Labour-market Outcomes of Women across OECD Countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 416-438, Autumn.
  3. Barbara Petrongolo, 2004. "Gender Segregation in Employment Contracts," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(2-3), pages 331-345, 04/05.
  4. Juan J. Dolado & Florentino Felgueroso & Juan F. Jimeno, 2002. "Recent Trends In Occupational Segregation By Gender: A Look Across The Atlantic," Economics Working Papers we023011, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.
  5. Derek Neal, 2002. "The Measured Black-White Wage Gap Among Women is Too Small," NBER Working Papers 9133, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Edin, Per-Anders & Richardson, Katarina, 2002. " Swimming with the Tide: Solidary Wage Policy and the Gender Earnings Gap," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 104(1), pages 49-67.
  7. Boeri, Tito & Del Boca, Daniela & Pissarides, Christopher (ed.), 2005. "Women at Work: An Economic Perspective," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199281886.
  8. Gubta, Nabanita Datta & Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Smith, Nina, 2002. "Swimming Upstream, Floating Downstream: Trends in the U.S. and Danish Gender Wage Gaps," CLS Working Papers 01-6, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
  9. Francine Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2006. "The US Gender Pay Gap in the 1990s: Slowing Convergence," Working Papers 887, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  10. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1997. "Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 1-42, January.
  11. Barbara Petrongolo, 2004. "Gender segregation in employment contracts," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3662, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  12. Alessandra Fogli & Raquel Fernandez, 2005. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," Working Papers 05-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  13. Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, . "Race and Gender in the Labor Market," IPR working papers 98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  14. Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2006. "The Mismatch between Employment and Child Care in Italy: the Impact of Rationing," CHILD Working Papers wp08_06, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  15. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," NBER Working Papers 5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Edin, P.A. & Richardson, K., 1999. "Swemming with the Tide: Solidarity Wage Policy and the Gender Earnings Gap," Papers 1999:11, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  17. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S29-62, Suppl..
  18. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
  19. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," NBER Working Papers 8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Casey B. Mulligan & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Selection, Investment, and Women's Relative Wages Over Time," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(3), pages 1061-1110, August.
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