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Order Flow and the Real: Indirect Evidence of the Effectiveness of Sterilized Interventions

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  • Emanuel Kohlscheen

Abstract

This study presents indirect evidence of the effectiveness of sterilized interventions in Brazil based on the complete records of daily customer order flow data reported by Brazilian dealers as well as foreign exchange intervention data over a time span of 10 years (2002-2011). We find that the effect of USD sales by end-users on the BRL/USD was much stronger on days in which the BCB did not intervene in the spot foreign exchange market. The regressions suggest that a 1% appreciation of the Real would have required the sale of 2.0 bn USD by final customers on days in which the Central Bank refrained from intervening. This compares to required sales of 5.5 bn USD on days in which the Central Bank was present in the market. This large effect, in spite of the fact that the median intervention amounted to only 140 mn USD, can be interpreted as evidence for the indirect damping channel. Furthermore, we find that order flows coming from outside of the financial sector have a (considerably) stronger effect on the BRL/USD exchange rate than those coming from financial customers. We argue that some studies may have failed to find significant effects of BCB interventions due to a problem of reverse causality, as in a regime of discretionary interventions the decision to intervene is often taken during trading hours.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department in its series Working Papers Series with number 273.

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Date of creation: Apr 2012
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Handle: RePEc:bcb:wpaper:273

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Web page: http://www.bcb.gov.br/?english

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  1. Bjonnes, Geir Hoidal & Rime, Dagfinn & Solheim, Haakon O.Aa., 2005. "Liquidity provision in the overnight foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 175-196, March.
  2. Kohlscheen, Emanuel, 2010. "Emerging floaters: Pass-throughs and (some) new commodity currencies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(8), pages 1580-1595, December.
  3. Killeen, William P. & Lyons, Richard K. & Moore, Michael J., 2006. "Fixed versus flexible: Lessons from EMS order flow," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 551-579, June.
  4. Michael J. Sager & Mark P. Taylor, 2006. "Under the microscope: the structure of the foreign exchange market," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 81-95.
  5. Martin D. D. Evans and Richard K. Lyons., 1999. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-288, University of California at Berkeley.
  6. Martin D. D. Evans & Richard K. Lyons, 2006. "Understanding order flow," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 3-23.
  7. Stefan Reitz & Markus Schmidt & Mark Taylor, 2011. "End-user order flow and exchange rate dynamics - a dealer's perspective," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 153-168.
  8. Evans, Martin D.D., 2010. "Order flows and the exchange rate disconnect puzzle," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 58-71, January.
  9. Marcel Fratzscher, 2011. "Capital Flows, Push versus Pull Factors and the Global Financial Crisis," NBER Working Papers 17357, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Dominguez, Kathryn M. E., 2003. "The market microstructure of central bank intervention," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 25-45, January.
  11. Vitale, Paolo, 1999. "Sterilised central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 245-267, December.
  12. Sarno, Lucio & Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market: Is It Effective, and, If So, How Does It Work?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2690, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Kentaro Iwatsubo & Ian W. Marsh, 2011. "Order Flows, Fundamentals and Exchange Rates," Discussion Papers 1120, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
  14. Marsh, Ian W., 2011. "Order flow and central bank intervention: An empirical analysis of recent Bank of Japan actions in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 377-392, March.
  15. Taylor, Mark P. & Schmidt, Markus & Reitz, Stefan, 2007. "End-user order flow and exchange rate dynamics," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2007,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  16. Christopher J. Neely, 2005. "An analysis of recent studies of the effect of foreign exchange intervention," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 685-718.
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Cited by:
  1. Jaroslava Durčáková & Ondřej Šíma, 2013. "BRICS: Exchange Rate policy in Context of Internal and External Equilibrium," Český finanční a účetní časopis, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2013(4), pages 7-29.
  2. Calebe de Roure & Steven Furnagiev & Stefan Reitz, 2013. "The Microstructure of Exchange Rate Management: FX Intervention and Capital Controls in Brazil," Kiel Working Papers 1865, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  3. Emanuel Kohlscheen, 2013. "Long-Run Determinants of the Brazilian Real: a closer look at commodities," Working Papers Series 314, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  4. Adriana Soares Sales & João Barata Ribeiro Blanco Barroso, 2012. "Coping with a Complex Global Environment: a Brazilian perspective on emerging market issues," Working Papers Series 292, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.

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