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Making the Most of Scarcity : Accountability for Better Water Management Results in the Middle East and North Africa

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  • World Bank
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    Abstract

    Water -- the resource itself as well as the irrigation and water supply services derived from it is important for every country. It is fundamental to human health, wellbeing, productivity, and livelihoods. It is also essential for the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. Here, in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the most water-scarce region of the world, good water management matters even more than it does elsewhere. The report suggests that MENA can meet its water management challenge. People have a very real need for water for drinking and for household uses. This domestic use, however, accounts for less than ten percent of a typical country's water consumption. Every country in the region has enough water resources to meet domestic needs, even accounting for the larger populations expected in the future. And policy decisions can help improve the way drinking water and sanitation services are delivered so that people get the services they need. The bulk of a typical country's water consumption goes to agriculture. This demand depends on such factors as the structure of the economy, people's consumption preferences, agriculture and trade policies, and how efficiently water is used. These factors can be influenced by policy choices. Similarly, countries can protect their environmental quality with policy and institutional choices. The necessary policy changes are far from easy. Yet they are essential, and, when coupled with improvements in accountability to the public, water resources and services will support communities and promote economic development and bring benefits to the entire population.

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    File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6845/411130was390400Englishoptmzd.pdf?sequence=1
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    Bibliographic Info

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    This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 6845 and published in 2007.

    ISBN: 978-0-8213-6925-8
    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:6845

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    Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
    Phone: (202) 477-1234
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    Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
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    Related research

    Keywords: Water Resources - Water and Industry Water Supply and Sanitation - Town Water Supply and Sanitation Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Systems Water Supply and Sanitation - Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions Water Resources - Water Conservation;

    References

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    1. Perry, C. J., 1996. "Alternative approaches to cost sharing for water service to agriculture in Egypt," IWMI Research Reports H 18207, International Water Management Institute.
    2. World Bank, 2003. "Morocco : Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14414, The World Bank.
    3. Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael, 2004. "Gainers and losers from trade reform in Morocco," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3368, The World Bank.
    4. Peter Rogers, 2002. "Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications 68878, Inter-American Development Bank.
    5. Perry, C. J., 1996. "Alternative approaches to cost sharing for water service to agriculture in Egypt," IWMI Books, Reports H018207, International Water Management Institute.
    6. Freisem, C. & Scheumann, W., 2001. "Institutional arrangements for land drainage in developing countries," IWMI Working Papers H029144, International Water Management Institute.
    7. World Bank, 2005. "World Development Indicators 2005," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 12426, October.
    8. Roe, Terry & Dinar, Ariel & Tsur, Yacov & Diao, Xinshen, 2005. "Feedback links between economy-wide and farm-level policies: With application to irrigation water management in Morocco," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 905-928, November.
    9. Jonathan Kydd & Sophie Thoyer, 1992. "Structural Adjustment and Moroccan Agriculture: An Assessment of the Reforms in the Sugar and Cereal Sectors," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 70, OECD Publishing.
    10. Arzaghi, Mohammad & Henderson, J. Vernon, 2005. "Why countries are fiscally decentralizing," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(7), pages 1157-1189, July.
    11. Blomquist, William & Dinar, Ariel & Kemper, Karin, 2005. "Comparison of institutional arrangements for river basin management in eight basins," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3636, The World Bank.
    12. Cioffi, Antonio & dell'Aquila, Crescenzo, 2004. "The effects of trade policies for fresh fruit and vegetables of the European Union," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 169-185, April.
    13. Becker, Gary S, 1983. "A Theory of Competition among Pressure Groups for Political Influence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(3), pages 371-400, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Damerau, Kerstin & Williges, Keith & Patt, Anthony G. & Gauché, Paul, 2011. "Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 4391-4398, July.
    2. James E. Rauch & Scott Kostyshak, 2009. "The Three Arab Worlds," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(3), pages 165-88, Summer.
    3. Jeannie Sowers & Avner Vengosh & Erika Weinthal, 2011. "Climate change, water resources, and the politics of adaptation in the Middle East and North Africa," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 104(3), pages 599-627, February.
    4. World Bank, 2011. "Poor Places, Thriving People : How the Middle East and North Africa Can Rise Above Spatial Disparities," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2255, October.

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