Gender and Agriculture: Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps
AbstractWomen make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, we review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. We discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth, and they appear to rise with GDP per capita and with greater access to resources and inputs. Active policies that support women's access and participation, not just greater overall access, are essential if these gaps are to be closed. The gains in terms of greater productivity of land and overall production are likely to be large. Copyright 2013, Oxford University Press.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by World Bank Group in its journal The World Bank Research Observer.
Volume (Year): 28 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Fax: 01865 267 985
Web page: http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Croppenstedt, Andre & Goldstein, Markus & Rosas, Nina, 2013. "Gender and agriculture : inefficiencies, segregation, and low productivity traps," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6370, The World Bank.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Akresh, Richard, 2005. "Understanding Pareto Inefficient Intrahousehold Allocations," IZA Discussion Papers 1858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Adesina, Akinwumi A. & Djato, Kouakou K., 1997. "Relative efficiency of women as farm managers: Profit function analysis in Cote d'Ivoire," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 47-53, March.
- Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Quisumbing, Agnes & Behrman, Julia & Biermayr-Jenzano, Patricia & Wilde, Vicki & Noordeloos, Marco & Ragasa, Catherine & Beintema, Nienke, 2010. "Engendering agricultural research," IFPRI discussion papers 973, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Ouma, James Okuro & De Groote, Hugo & Owuor, George, 2006. "Determinants of Improved Maize Seed and Fertilizer Use in Kenya: Policy Implications," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25433, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Anna Tibaijuka, 1994. "The Cost Of Differential Gender Roles In African Agriculture: A Case Study Of Smallholder Banana-Coffee Farms In The Kagera Region, Tanzania," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 69-81.
- Sara Horrell & Pramila Krishnan, 2007.
"Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe,"
The Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1351-1380.
- Horrell, S. & Krishnan, P., 2006. "Poverty and Productivity in Female-Headed Households in Zimbabwe," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0663, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Pandolfelli, Lauren, 2009.
"Promising approaches to address the needs of poor female farmers: Resources, constraints, and interventions,"
IFPRI discussion papers
882, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Pandolfelli, Lauren, 2010. "Promising Approaches to Address the Needs of Poor Female Farmers: Resources, Constraints, and Interventions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 581-592, April.
- Diana Fletschner, 2008. "Women's Access to Credit: Does It Matter for Household Efficiency?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 669-683.
- Kumar, Shubh K., 1994. "Adoption of hybrid maize in Zambia: effects on gender roles, food consumption, and nutrition," Research reports 100, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Bourdillon, Michael & Hebinck, Paul & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill & Marondo, John & Mudege, Netsayi & Owens, Trudy, 2003.
"Assessing the impact of high-yielding varieties of maize in resettlement areas of Zimbabwe,"
161, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Bourdillon, Michael & Hebinck, Paul & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill & Marondo, John & Mudege, Netsayi & Owens, Trudy, 2003. "Assessing the impact of high-yielding varieties of maize in resettlement areas of Zimbabwe," FCND discussion papers 161, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Davis, K. & Nkonya, E. & Kato, E. & Mekonnen, D.A. & Odendo, M. & Miiro, R. & Nkuba, J., 2012.
"Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in East Africa,"
Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 402-413.
- Davis, Kristin & Nkonya, Ephraim & Kato, Edward & Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew & Odendo, Martins & Miiro, Richard & Nkuba, Jackson, 2010. "Impact of farmer field schools on agricultural productivity and poverty in East Africa," IFPRI discussion papers 992, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Yotopoulos, Pan A & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "A Test for Relative Economic Efficiency: Some Further Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 214-23, March.
- Thomas Masterson, 2007. "Female Land Rights, Crop Specialization, and Productivity in Paraguayan Agriculture," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_504, Levy Economics Institute, The.
- Peterman, Amber & Behrman, Julia & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2010. "A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries," IFPRI discussion papers 975, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- C. Dolan, 2001. "The 'Good Wife': Struggles over Resources in the Kenyan Horticultural Sector," The Journal of Development Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 39-70.
- World Bank & Food and Agriculture Organization & International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2009. "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6603.
- Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Deininger, Klaus & Goldstein, Markus, 2011. "Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa : pilot evidence from Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5765, The World Bank.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
- Deere, Carmen Diana & Leon, Magdalena, 2003. "The Gender Asset Gap: Land in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 925-947, June.
- Sanzidur Rahman, 2010. "Women's Labour Contribution to Productivity and Efficiency in Agriculture: Empirical Evidence From Bangladesh," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(2), pages 318-342.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.