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Multiple Prisoner's Dilemma Games with(out) an Outside Option: an Experimental Study

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  • Esther Hauk

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Abstract

Experiments in which subjects play simultaneously several finite prisoner's dilemma supergames with and without an outside option reveal that: (i) subjects use probabilistic start and endeffect behaviour, (ii) the freedom to choose whether to play the prisoner's dilemma game enhances cooperation, (iii) if the payoff for simultaneous defection is negative, subjects' tendency to avoid losses leads them to cooperate; while this tendency makes them stick to mutual defection if its payoff is positive.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1023/A:1027385819400
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Theory and Decision.

Volume (Year): 54 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 207-229

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Handle: RePEc:kap:theord:v:54:y:2003:i:3:p:207-229

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Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100341

Related research

Keywords: Prisoner's dilemma; Cooperation; Exit; Experiments; Loss aversion;

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References

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  1. Esther Hauk, 2003. "Multiple Prisoner's Dilemma Games with(out) an Outside Option: an Experimental Study," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 207-229, May.
  2. Marcet, Albert & Nicolini, Juan Pablo, 1998. "Recurrent Hyperinflations and Learning," CEPR Discussion Papers 1875, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Kreps, David M. & Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John & Wilson, Robert, 1982. "Rational cooperation in the finitely repeated prisoners' dilemma," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 245-252, August.
  4. Tesfatsion, Leigh, 1997. "A Trade Network Game with Endogenous Partner Selection," Staff General Research Papers 1680, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  5. Selten, Reinhard & Stoecker, Rolf, 1986. "End behavior in sequences of finite Prisoner's Dilemma supergames A learning theory approach," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 47-70, March.
  6. Hauk, Esther, 2001. "Leaving the Prison: Permitting Partner Choice and Refusal in Prisoner's Dilemma Games," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 18(1), pages 65-87, August.
  7. Brock, W.A., 1995. "A Rational Route to Randomness," Working papers 9530, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  8. James Andreoni & John H Miller, 1997. "Rational Cooperation in the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma: experimental evidence," Levine's Working Paper Archive 670, David K. Levine.
  9. Cachon, Gerard P & Camerer, Colin F, 1996. "Loss-Avoidance and Forward Induction in Experimental Coordination Games," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(1), pages 165-94, February.
  10. Dan Ashlock & Mark D. Smucker & E. Ann Stanley & Leigh Tesfatsion, 1995. "Preferential Partner Selection in an Evolutionary Study of Prisoner's Dilemma," Game Theory and Information 9501002, EconWPA, revised 20 Jan 1995.
  11. Parikshit Ghosh & Debraj Ray, 1995. "Cooperation in Community Interaction Without Information Flows," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 64, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
  12. Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1996. "Consistency and Cautious Fictitious Play," Levine's Working Paper Archive 470, David K. Levine.
  13. Brock, W.A. & Hommes, C.H., 1995. "Rational Routes to Randomness," Working papers 9506, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  14. Dixon,Huw David & Rankin,Neil, 1995. "The New Macroeconomics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521479479, October.
  15. Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-81, September.
  16. Esther Hauk & Rosemarie Nagel, 2000. "Choice of partners in multiple two-person prisoner's dilemma games: An experimental study," Economics Working Papers 487, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  17. Stanley, E.A. & Ashlock, Daniel & Tesfatsion, Leigh, 1994. "Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma with Choice and Refusal of Partners," Staff General Research Papers 11180, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. John Duffy & Félix Muñoz-García, 2012. "Patience or Fairness? Analyzing Social Preferences in Repeated Games," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 56-77, March.
  2. Claudia Keser & Claude Montmarquette, 2011. "Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(3), pages 277-301, August.
  3. Kene Boun My & Benoît Chalvignac, 2009. "Voluntary participation and cooperation in a collective-good game," Working Papers of BETA 2009-01, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
  4. Esther Hauk, 1999. "Multiple prisoner's dilemma games with (out) an outside option: An experimental study," Economics Working Papers 391, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  5. S. K. Berninghaus & Werner Gueth & Katinka Pantz & Bodo Vogt, 2004. "Evolution of Spontaneous Social Exchange - An Experimental Study -," Papers on Strategic Interaction 2004-17, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.

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