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Energy, Pollutant Emissions and Other Negative Externality Savings from Curbing Individual Motorized Transportation (IMT): A Low Cost, Low Technology Scenario Analysis in Brazilian Urban Areas

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  • Marcelo Maciel

    ()
    ((CEFET–RJ) Federal Center of Technological Education, Av. Maracana 229, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20271-110, Brazil)

  • Luiz Rosa

    ()
    (Federal Center Energy Planning Program, Graduate School of Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211 Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972, Brazil)

  • Fernando Correa

    ()
    ((CEFET–RJ) Federal Center of Technological Education, Av. Maracana 229, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20271-110, Brazil)

  • Ursula Maruyama

    ()
    ((CEFET–RJ) Federal Center of Technological Education, Av. Maracana 229, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20271-110, Brazil)

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    Abstract

    This article examines the inefficient use of resources in the Brazilian transportation system. The energy use growth and external cost generation in this essential economic sector are considerable, and the trend is towards an increasing problem in the coming years. The continued expansion of Brazilian cities and the increase in demand for mobility is a result of a substantial growth in the number of road transport users, as increased earnings enable lower income groups to acquire and use individual motorized means of transport. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential gains from reducing individual motorized transport by the year 2020. This investigation concludes that in a conservationist scenario, by prioritizing low cost, low technology public policies—which include operation of Bus Rapid Transit systems, walking and cycling facilities and congestion charges, among others—it should be possible to save over USD 30 billion and USD 26 billion in external transportation and infrastructure costs, respectively, up to 2020. In addition, these public policies can save more than 35 million Tons of Oil Equivalents in energy consumption and avoid almost 4,000 thousand tons of local pollution emissions and 37,500 thousand tons of GHG emissions in the same period.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Energies.

    Volume (Year): 5 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 3 (March)
    Pages: 835-861

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    Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:5:y:2012:i:3:p:835-861:d:16811

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    Related research

    Keywords: energy waste; sustainable transportation; negative externalities; low cost; low technology public policies;

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    1. Gwilliam, Ken, 2008. "A review of issues in transit economics," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 4-22, January.
    2. Ian W. H. Parry & Margaret Walls & Winston Harrington, 2007. "Automobile Externalities and Policies," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 373-399, June.
    3. Rotaris, Lucia & Danielis, Romeo & Marcucci, Edoardo & Massiani, Jérôme, 2010. "The urban road pricing scheme to curb pollution in Milan, Italy: Description, impacts and preliminary cost-benefit analysis assessment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 359-375, June.
    4. Santos, Georgina & Behrendt, Hannah & Teytelboym, Alexander, 2010. "Part II: Policy instruments for sustainable road transport," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 46-91.
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    6. Meyer, Michael D., 1999. "Demand management as an element of transportation policy: using carrots and sticks to influence travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 575-599.
    7. Todd Litman & David Burwell, 2006. "Issues in sustainable transportation," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(4), pages 331-347.
    8. Hau, Timothy D., 1992. "Economic fundamentals of road pricing : a diagrammatic analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1070, The World Bank.
    9. Hymel, Kent, 2009. "Does traffic congestion reduce employment growth?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 127-135, March.
    10. Jonathan Leape, 2006. "The London Congestion Charge," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 157-176, Fall.
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