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Entrepreneurship and the policy environment

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Author Info

  • Yannis Georgellis
  • Howard J. Wall

Abstract

This paper uses a panel approach to examine the effect that the government-policy environment has on the level of entrepreneurship. Specifically, the authors investigate whether marginal income tax rates and bankruptcy exemptions influence rates of entrepreneurship. Whereas previous work in the literature finds that both policies are positively related to entrepreneurship, these results show non-monotonic relationships: a U-shaped relationship between marginal tax rates and entrepreneurship and an S-shaped relationship between bankruptcy exemptions and entrepreneurship.

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File URL: http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/06/03/GeorgellisWall.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its journal Review.

Volume (Year): (2006)
Issue (Month): Mar ()
Pages: 95-112

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2006:i:mar:p:95-112:n:v.88no.2

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Keywords: Business enterprises ; Taxation ; Bankruptcy;

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References

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  1. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
  2. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
  3. Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2000. "Who are the self-employed?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 15-24.
  4. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  5. Thomas Dunn & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment:Evidence from Intergenerational Links," NBER Working Papers 5622, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Howard J. Wall & Yannis Georgellis, 1999. "What makes a region entrepreneurial? evidence from Britain," Working Papers 1999-009, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  7. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  8. Blau, David M, 1987. "A Time-Series Analysis of Self-employment in the United State," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 445-67, June.
  9. Parker, Simon C, 1996. "A Time Series Model of Self-Employment under Uncertainty," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(251), pages 459-75, August.
  10. Roger H. Gordon & Julie Berry Cullen, 2002. "Taxes and Entrepreneurial Activity: Theory and Evidence for the U.S," NBER Working Papers 9015, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Michael Hout & Harvey Rosen, 2000. "Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 670-692.
  12. Reint Gropp & John Karl Scholz & Michelle White, 1996. "Personal Bankruptcy and Credit Supply and Demand," NBER Working Papers 5653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Jeremy Berkowitz & Michelle J. White, 2004. "Bankruptcy and Small Firms' Access to Credit," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(1), pages 69-84, Spring.
  15. Bruce, Donald, 2000. "Effects of the United States tax system on transitions into self-employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 545-574, September.
  16. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
  17. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  18. Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
  19. Gill, Andrew M, 1988. "Choice of Employment Status and the Wages of Employees and the Self-employed: Some Further Evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(3), pages 229-34, July-Sept.
  20. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
  21. White, M.J., 1998. "Why It Pays to File for Bankruptcy: A Critical Look at Incentives Under U.S. Bankruptcy Laws and A Proposal for Change," Papers 98-02, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
  22. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
  23. Dye, Ronald A, 1986. "An Economic Analysis of Bankruptcy Statutes," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 24(3), pages 417-28, July.
  24. Scott Fay & Erik Hurst & Michelle J. White, 2002. "The Household Bankruptcy Decision," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 706-718, June.
  25. Taylor, Mark P., 1994. "Earnings, independence or unemployment: why become self -employed?," ISER Working Paper Series 26, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  26. Fan, Wei & White, Michelle J, 2003. "Personal Bankruptcy and the Level of Entrepreneurial Activity," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(2), pages 543-67, October.
  27. Cowling, Marc & Mitchell, Peter, 1997. "The Evolution of U.K. Self-Employment: A Study of Government Policy and the Role of the Macroeconomy," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 65(4), pages 427-42, September.
  28. Donald Bruce & Mohammed Mohsin, 2006. "Tax Policy and Entrepreneurship: New Time Series Evidence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(5), pages 409-425, 06.
  29. R. Glenn Hubbard & William M. Gentry, 2000. "Tax Policy and Entrepreneurial Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 283-287, May.
  30. Wall, Howard J., 2004. "Entrepreneurship and the deregulation of banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 333-339, March.
  31. Le, Anh T, 1999. " Empirical Studies of Self-Employment," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 381-416, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Estrin, Saul & Korosteleva, Julia & Mickiewicz, Tomasz, 2013. "Which institutions encourage entrepreneurial growth aspirations?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 564-580.
  2. Kartik Athreya & Ahmet Akyol, 2009. "Credit and self-employment," Working Paper 09-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  3. Howard J. Wall, 2003. "Entrepreneurship and the deregulation of banking: how strong is the evidence?," Working Papers 2002-032, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  4. Ruud A. De Mooij & Gaëtan J.A. Nicodème, 2006. "Corporate Tax Policy, Entrepreneurship and Incorporation in the EU," CESifo Working Paper Series 1883, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz & Pierre Garello, 2011. "Tax Structure and Entrepreneurship," CAE Working Papers 94, Aix-Marseille Université, CERGAM.
  6. Fossen, Frank M. & Steiner, Viktor, 2006. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneurial Choice: Empirical Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 2164, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Magnus Henrekson & Tino Sanandaji, 2011. "Entrepreneurship and the theory of taxation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 167-185, September.
  8. Frank Fossen & Viktor Steiner, 2009. "Income taxes and entrepreneurial choice: empirical evidence from two German natural experiments," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 487-513, June.
  9. Aparna Mathur, 2010. "Health insurance and job creation by the self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 299-317, October.
  10. Kevin Moore, 2004. "The effects of the 1986 and 1993 tax reforms on self-employment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-05, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Jeffrey Thompson, 2012. "Raising Revenue from High-Income Households: Should States Continue to Place the Lowest Tax Rates on Those with the Highest Incomes?," Published Studies revenue_peri_march5, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
  12. Frank M. Fossen, 2007. "Risky Earnings, Taxation and Entrepreneurial Choice: A Microeconometric Model for Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 705, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  13. Da Rin, M. & Di Giacomo, M. & Sembenelli, A., 2008. "Firm Entry Dynamics and Taxation of Corporate Profits: Evidence from Europe (Replaced by DP 2009-61)," Discussion Paper 2008-65, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  14. Donald Bruce & John Deskins, 2012. "Can state tax policies be used to promote entrepreneurial activity?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 375-397, May.
  15. Wall, Howard J., 2004. "Entrepreneurship and the deregulation of banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 333-339, March.

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