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Minority Self-Employment in the United States and the Impact of Affirmative Action Programs

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  • David G. Blanchflower

Abstract

n this paper I examine changes in self-employment that have occurred since the early 1980s in the United States. It is a companion paper to a recent equivalent paper that related to the UK. Data on random samples of approximately twenty million US workers are examined taken from the Basic Monthly files of the CPS (BMCPS), the 2000 Census and the 2006 American Community Survey (ACS). In contrast to the official definition of self-employment which simply counts the numbers of unincorporated self-employed, we also include the incorporated self-employed who are paid wages and salaries. The paper presents evidence on trends in self-employment for the US by race, ethnicity and gender. Evidence is also presented for construction which has self-employment rates roughly double the national rates and where there are strikingly high racial and gender disparities in self-employment rates. The construction sector is also important given the existence of public sector affirmative action programs at the federal, state and local levels directed at firms owned by women and minorities. I document the fact that disparities between the self-employment rates of white men and white women and minorities in construction narrowed in the 1980s, widened during the 1990s after the US Supreme Court's decision in Croson but then narrowed again since 2000 after a number of legal cases, which found such programs constitutional. Despite this substantial disparities remain, particularly in earnings. I also find evidence of discrimination in the small business credit market. Firms owned by minorities in general and blacks in particular are much more likely to have their loans denied and pay higher interest than is the case for white males. This is only partially explained by their lack of creditworthiness and is consistent with a finding of discrimination in the credit market by banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 13972.

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Date of creation: May 2008
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Publication status: published as David Blanchflower, 2009. "Minority self-employment in the United States and the impact of affirmative action programs," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 361-396, June.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13972

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Cited by:
  1. Ahmet Akyol & Kartik Athreya, 2009. "Self-employment rates and business size: the roles of occupational choice and credit market frictions," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 495-519, June.
  2. Vincenzo Quadrini, 2009. "Entrepreneurship in macroeconomics," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 295-311, June.
  3. Mariacristina De Nardi & Anne Villamil, 2009. "Entrepreneurship, finance and employment," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 289-293, June.
  4. Michaelides, Marios & Benus, Jacob, 2010. "Are self-employment training programs effective? Evidence from Project GATE," MPRA Paper 20883, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Neus Herranz & Stefan Krasa & Anne Villamil, 2009. "Small firms in the SSBF," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 341-359, June.
  6. David Blanchflower, 2009. "Where Next For The Uk Economy?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 56(1), pages 1-23, 02.
  7. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.

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