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The importance of education for the reallocation of labor: Evidence from Swedish linked employer-employee data 1986-2002

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  • Gartell, Marie
  • Jans, Ann-Christin
  • Persson, Helena
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    Abstract

    Using Swedish employer-employee data we study job and worker flows for different educational groups, as well as the cyclicality of such flows. Due to the long period studied, from 1986 to 2002, and the widely fluctuating business cycle during this period, we have a unique opportunity to analyze the cyclical pattern of job and worker flows. We especially look at the big downturn in the Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s. When workers are treated as homogenous, we find job reallocation to be countercyclical. However, when we estimate correlations for different educational groups, we find job reallocation to be countercyclical for the lowest educated, and acyclical for higher educated workers. Contrary to job flows, we find worker flows to be acyclical, with a strong procyclical pattern in hiring rates, and an acyclical pattern in separation rates. When decomposing worker flows into educational groups, the acyclical pattern is prevalent for all groups, except for the highest educated. For the highest educated, worker reallocation is strongly pro-cyclical due to both more hirings and separations during up-turns.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Labour Economics.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 206-214

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:17:y:2010:i:1:p:206-214

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/labeco

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    1. Boeri, Tito, 1996. "Is Job Turnover Countercyclical?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(4), pages 603-25, October.
    2. Gary Solon & Ryan Michaels & Michael W. L. Elsby, 2009. "The Ins and Outs of Cyclical Unemployment," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 84-110, January.
    3. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2000. "Job Flows, Worker Flows, and Churning," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 473-502, July.
    4. Steve J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1991. "Gross job creation, gross job destruction and employment reallocation," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    5. John Baldwin & Timothy Dunne & John Haltiwanger, 1994. "A Comparison of Job Creation and Job Destruction in Canada and the United States," NBER Working Papers 4726, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Robert Shimer, 2005. "The cyclicality of hires, separations, and job-to-job transitions," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 493-508.
    7. Kjell G. Salvanes & Svein Erik F¯rre, 2003. "Effects on Employment of Trade and Technical Change: Evidence from Norway," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 70(278), pages 293-329, 05.
    8. Dale T. Mortensen & Christopher A. Pissarides, 1993. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," CEP Discussion Papers dp0110, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    9. Gómez-Salvador, Ramón & Messina, Julián & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2004. "Gross job flows and institutions in Europe," Working Paper Series 0318, European Central Bank.
    10. Abowd, John M & Corbel, Patrick & Kramarz, Francis, 1997. "The Entry and Exit of Workers and the Growth of Employment: An Analysis of French Establishments," CEPR Discussion Papers 1765, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Robert Shimer, 2007. "Reassessing the Ins and Outs of Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 13421, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
    13. Christopher L. Foote, 1998. "Trend Employment Growth and the Bunching of Job Creation and Destruction," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1818, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    14. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2004:i:4:p:1-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Garibaldi, Pietro, 1998. "Job flow dynamics and firing restrictions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 245-275, February.
    16. Julia I. Lane & Alan G. Isaac & David W. Stevens, 1996. "Firm Heterogeneity and Worker Turnover," Labor and Demography 9602001, EconWPA.
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