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A new look at the two-mode problem

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  • Kraus, Marvin

Abstract

This paper considers the second-best policy problem that arises when auto travel is priced below its marginal cost and there is a substitute mass transit mode. We analyze the problem by combining a model of a rail line based on Kraus and Yoshida (JUE (2002)) with the highway bottleneck model. The model involves a transit authority which optimizes, in addition to the fare, two dimensions of transit capacity. These are (1) the number of train units serving the route and (2) the capacity of an individual train unit. Under a very weak condition, second-best optimality involves expanding both dimensions of transit capacity. The larger of the effects is on train size.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 54 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
Pages: 511-530

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:54:y:2003:i:3:p:511-530

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905

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References

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  1. Small, K.A. & Yan, J., 1999. "The Value of "Value Princing" of Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation," Papers 99-00-02, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
  2. Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1985. "Economics of a Bottleneck," Working Papers 636, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  3. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing: The Case of an Untolled Alternative," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 279-302, November.
  4. AndrÊ de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 2000. "Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-35.
  5. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
  6. Erik T. Verhoef & Kenneth A. Small, 1999. "Product Differentiation on Roads: Second-Best Congestion Pricing with Heterogeneity under Public and Private Ownership," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-066/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Richard Arnott & An Yan, 2000. "The Two-Mode Problem: Second-Best Pricing and Capacity," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 474, Boston College Department of Economics.
  8. Wilson, John D., 1983. "Optimal road capacity in the presence of unpriced congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 337-357, May.
  9. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-79, June.
  10. Kraus, Marvin & Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2002. "The Commuter's Time-of-Use Decision and Optimal Pricing and Service in Urban Mass Transit," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 170-195, January.
  11. Liu, Louie Nan & McDonald, John F., 1999. "Economic efficiency of second-best congestion pricing schemes in urban highway systems," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 157-188, April.
  12. Sherman, Roger, 1971. "Congestion Interdependence and Urban Transit Fares," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(3), pages 565-76, May.
  13. Small, Kenneth A., 2001. "The Value of Pricing," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt0rm449sx, University of California Transportation Center.
  14. d'Ouville, Edmond L. & McDonald, John F., 1990. "Optimal road capacity with a suboptimal congestion toll," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 34-49, July.
  15. Liu, Louie Nan & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Efficient Congestion Tolls in the Presence of Unpriced Congestion: A Peak and Off-Peak Simulation Model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 352-366, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  2. De Borger Bruno & Stef Proost, 2004. "Vertical and horizontal tax competition in the transport sector," Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series ete0412, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment.
  3. Luke Haywood & Martin Koning, 2012. "Avoir les coudes serrés dans le métro parisien : évaluation contingente du confort des déplacements," Revue d'économie industrielle, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(4), pages 111-144.
  4. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011059 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Rapoport, Amnon & Stein, William E. & Mak, Vincent & Zwick, Rami & Seale, Darryl A., 2010. "Endogenous arrivals in batch queues with constant or variable capacity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1166-1185, December.
  6. Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2008. "Commuter arrivals and optimal service in mass transit: Does queuing behavior at transit stops matter?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 228-251, May.
  7. Kutzbach, Mark J., 2009. "Motorization in developing countries: Causes, consequences, and effectiveness of policy options," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 154-166, March.
  8. Marvin Kraus, 2011. "Road Pricing with Optimal Mass Transit," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 771, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 15 Apr 2012.
  9. Tian, Qiong & Huang, Hai-Jun & Yang, Hai, 2007. "Equilibrium properties of the morning peak-period commuting in a many-to-one mass transit system," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 616-631, July.
  10. Gonzales, Eric J. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2012. "Morning commute with competing modes and distributed demand: User equilibrium, system optimum, and pricing," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1519-1534.
  11. van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2013. "Serial private infrastructures," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 186-202.

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