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A new look at the two-mode problem

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  • Kraus, Marvin

Abstract

This paper considers the second-best policy problem that arises when auto travel is priced below its marginal cost and there is a substitute mass transit mode. We analyze the problem by combining a model of a rail line based on Kraus and Yoshida (JUE (2002)) with the highway bottleneck model. The model involves a transit authority which optimizes, in addition to the fare, two dimensions of transit capacity. These are (1) the number of train units serving the route and (2) the capacity of an individual train unit. Under a very weak condition, second-best optimality involves expanding both dimensions of transit capacity. The larger of the effects is on train size.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 54 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
Pages: 511-530

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:54:y:2003:i:3:p:511-530

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905

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References

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  1. AndrÊ de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 2000. "Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-35.
  2. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1990. "Economics of a bottleneck," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 111-130, January.
  3. Small, Kenneth A. & Yan, Jia, 2001. "The Value of "Value Pricing" of Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9569k1sz, University of California Transportation Center.
  4. Liu, Louie Nan & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Efficient Congestion Tolls in the Presence of Unpriced Congestion: A Peak and Off-Peak Simulation Model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 352-366, November.
  5. Sherman, Roger, 1971. "Congestion Interdependence and Urban Transit Fares," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(3), pages 565-76, May.
  6. Richard Arnott & An Yan, 2000. "The Two-Mode Problem: Second-Best Pricing and Capacity," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 474, Boston College Department of Economics.
  7. Verhoef, E.T. & Small, K.A., 1999. "Product Differentiation on Roads Second-Best Congestion Pricing with Heterogeneity under Public and Private Ownership," Papers 99-00-01, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
  8. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing: The Case of an Untolled Alternative," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 279-302, November.
  9. Wilson, John D., 1983. "Optimal road capacity in the presence of unpriced congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 337-357, May.
  10. Kraus, Marvin & Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2002. "The Commuter's Time-of-Use Decision and Optimal Pricing and Service in Urban Mass Transit," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 170-195, January.
  11. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-79, June.
  12. Liu, Louie Nan & McDonald, John F., 1999. "Economic efficiency of second-best congestion pricing schemes in urban highway systems," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 157-188, April.
  13. Small, Kenneth A., 2001. "The Value of Pricing," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt0rm449sx, University of California Transportation Center.
  14. d'Ouville, Edmond L. & McDonald, John F., 1990. "Optimal road capacity with a suboptimal congestion toll," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 34-49, July.
  15. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Koning Martin & Haywood Luke, 2011. "Pushy Parisian Elbows: Taste for Comfort in Public Transport," ERSA conference papers ersa11p815, European Regional Science Association.
  2. Marvin Kraus, 2011. "Road Pricing with Optimal Mass Transit," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 771, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 15 Apr 2012.
  3. Tian, Qiong & Huang, Hai-Jun & Yang, Hai, 2007. "Equilibrium properties of the morning peak-period commuting in a many-to-one mass transit system," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 616-631, July.
  4. Gonzales, Eric J. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2012. "Morning commute with competing modes and distributed demand: User equilibrium, system optimum, and pricing," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1519-1534.
  5. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  6. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011059 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. De Borger Bruno & Stef Proost, 2004. "Vertical and horizontal tax competition in the transport sector," Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series ete0412, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment.
  8. Rapoport, Amnon & Stein, William E. & Mak, Vincent & Zwick, Rami & Seale, Darryl A., 2010. "Endogenous arrivals in batch queues with constant or variable capacity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1166-1185, December.
  9. Kutzbach, Mark J., 2009. "Motorization in developing countries: Causes, consequences, and effectiveness of policy options," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 154-166, March.
  10. Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2008. "Commuter arrivals and optimal service in mass transit: Does queuing behavior at transit stops matter?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 228-251, May.
  11. van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2013. "Serial private infrastructures," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 186-202.

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