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Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial resistance

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  • Herrmann, Markus
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    Abstract

    We develop a dynamic bio-economic model of bacterial resistance and disease transmission in which we characterize the pricing policy of a monopolist who is protected by a patent. After expiration, the monopolist behaves competitively in a generic industry having open access to the common pool of antibiotic efficacy and infection. The monopolist manages endogenously the levels of antibiotic efficacy as well as the infected population, which represent quality and market size respectively and achieves, at least temporarily, higher such levels than a hypothetically myopic monopolist who does not take into account the dynamic externalities. The pricing policy and the biological system is characterized by the turnpike property. Before the patent vanishes, the monopolist behaves more and more myopically, leading to a continuous decrease in the price of the antibiotic. Once the generic industry takes over, a discontinuous fall in price occurs. Whether a prolongation of the patent is socially desirable depends on the relative levels of antibiotic efficacy and infection.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Health Economics.

    Volume (Year): 29 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 137-150

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:29:y:2010:i:1:p:137-150

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505560

    Related research

    Keywords: Antibiotic efficacy Public health Monopoly pricing Turnpike Patent length;

    References

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    1. Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Brown, Gardner M., 2001. "Economics of Antibiotic Resistance: A Theory of Optimal Use," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 183-206, September.
    2. Kessing, Sebastian & Nuscheler, Robert, 2003. "Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: the case of vaccines," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Market Processes and Governance SP II 2003-06, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    3. GAUDET, Gérard & HERRMANN, Markus, 2007. "The Economic Dynamics of Antibiotic Efficacy under Open Access," Cahiers de recherche 2007-04, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    4. Scott Morton, Fiona M., 2000. "Barriers to entry, brand advertising, and generic entry in the US pharmaceutical industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1085-1104, October.
    5. Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. "Numerical Methods in Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262100711, December.
    6. Mark Gersovitz & Jeffrey S. Hammer, 2004. "The Economical Control of Infectious Diseases," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 1-27, 01.
    7. Coast, J. & Smith, R. D. & Millar, M. R., 1998. "An economic perspective on policy to reduce antimicrobial resistance," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 29-38, January.
    8. Stéphane Mechoulan, 2005. "Market Structure and Communicable Diseases," Working Papers tecipa-241, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    9. Rudholm, Niklas, 2002. "Economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 1071-1083, November.
    10. Kingston, William, 2000. "Antibiotics, invention and innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 679-710, June.
    11. Tisdell, Clem, 1982. "Exploitation of Techniques That Decline in Effectiveness with Use," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 37(3), pages 428-37.
    12. Fischer, Carolyn & Laxminarayan, Ramanan, 2005. "Sequential development and exploitation of an exhaustible resource: do monopoly rights promote conservation?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 500-515, May.
    13. John B. Horowitz & H. Brian Moehring, 2004. "How property rights and patents affect antibiotic resistance," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(6), pages 575-583.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Markus Herrmann & Bruno Nkuiya & Anne-Renée Dussault, 2013. "Innovation and Antibiotic Use within Antibiotic Classes: Market Incentives and Economic Instruments," Cahiers de recherche CREATE 2013-3, CREATE.
    2. Massimo Filippini & Giuliano Masiero, 2011. "An empirical analysis of habit and addiction to antibiotics," Working Papers 1110, Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo.
    3. Massimo Filippini & Fabian Heimsch & Giuliano Masiero, 2013. "Antibiotic consumption and the role of dispensing physicians," CEPRA working paper 1302, USI Università della Svizzera italiana.
    4. Herrmann, Markus & Nkuiya, Bruno & Dussault, Anne-Renée, 2013. "Innovation and antibiotic use within antibiotic classes: Market incentives and economic instruments," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 582-598.
    5. Klaus Kaier & S. Moog, 2012. "Economic Consequences of the Demography of MRSA Patients and the Impact of Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials," Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 227-234, July.

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