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The Economic Dynamics of Antibiotic Efficacy under Open Access

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  • GAUDET, Gérard
  • HERRMANN, Markus

Abstract

We analyze the exploitation of an antibiotic in a market subject to open access on the part of antibiotic producers to the common pool of antibiotic efficacy and compare it to the social optimum. Demand for the antibiotic is derived under the assumption that individuals differ with respect to their valuation of being in good health. The dynamics of the antibiotic efficacy is based on an epidemiological model which describes the dynamic interaction between the level of efficacy of the antibiotic and the level of infection in the population, including the fact that antibiotic consumption tends to deplete the efficacy of the antibiotic in combating bacterial infections as the bacteria develop resistance to the antibiotic. The antibiotic producers care only about the variables that affect the instantaneous demand for the drug, namely the current stock of infected population and the current level of efficacy of the antibiotic, and enter the market until price is driven down to average cost. The social optimum, on the other hand, takes into account the welfare of the entire population, including that portion of the population which is in good health and that which is infected but chooses not to consume the antibiotic, as well as the effect of the current treatment rate on the future efficacy of the treatment and the future stock of infected population. We show that depending on the parameters of the model, in particular the cost of production and the improvement in the recovery rate that results from treatment, the positive steady-state level of antibiotic efficacy to which the system tends under open access can be lower or higher than the level which should prevail in the socially optimal steady state. In fact there are parameter configurations for which the steady states can be exactly the same. But no matter how the steady states compare, the socially optimal and the open-access paths to steady state will differ and involve different paths for the treatment rates.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1866/1483
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 2007-04.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtl:montde:2007-04

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Related research

Keywords: economics of antibiotic resistance; antibiotic efficacy; renewable resource; on-access equilibrium; social oimum;

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References

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  1. Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Brown, Gardner M., 2001. "Economics of Antibiotic Resistance: A Theory of Optimal Use," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 183-206, September.
  2. Gardner Brown & Ramanan Laxminarayan, 1998. "Economics of Antibiotic Resistance," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 0060, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  3. Tisdell, Clem, 1982. "Exploitation of Techniques That Decline in Effectiveness with Use," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 37(3), pages 428-37.
  4. Brown, Gardner & Layton, David F., 1996. "Resistance economics: social cost and the evolution of antibiotic resistance," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(03), pages 349-355, July.
  5. Elamin H. Elbasha, 2003. "Deadweight loss of bacterial resistance due to overtreatment," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 125-138.
  6. Mark Gersovitz & Jeffrey S. Hammer, 2004. "The Economical Control of Infectious Diseases," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 1-27, 01.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Anderson, Soren & Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Salant, Stephen W., 2010. "Diversity or Focus? Spending to Combat Infectious Diseases When Budgets Are Tight," Discussion Papers dp-10-15, Resources For the Future.
  2. Massimo Filippini & Laura González & Giuliano Masiero, 2010. "Estimating dynamic consumption of antibiotics using panel data: the shadow effect of bacterial resistance," Quaderni della facoltà di Scienze economiche dell'Università di Lugano 1011, USI Università della Svizzera italiana.
  3. Massimo Filippini & Giuliano Masiero, 2011. "An empirical analysis of habit and addiction to antibiotics," Working Papers 1110, Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo.
  4. Markus Herrmann, 2009. "Monopoly Pricing of an Antibiotic Subject to Bacterial Resistance," Cahiers de recherche 0946, CIRPEE.
  5. Herrmann, Markus, 2010. "Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial resistance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 137-150, January.
  6. Herrmann, Markus & Nkuiya, Bruno & Dussault, Anne-Renée, 2013. "Innovation and antibiotic use within antibiotic classes: Market incentives and economic instruments," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 582-598.
  7. Herrmann, Markus & Nkuiya, Bruno & Dussault, Anne-Renée, 2013. "Innovation and Antibiotic Use within Antibiotic Classes: Market Incentives and Economic Instruments," Working Papers 149731, University of Laval, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE).

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