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Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas

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Author Info

  • DeYoung, Robert
  • Frame, W. Scott
  • Glennon, Dennis
  • McMillen, Daniel P.
  • Nigro, Peter

Abstract

We study recent changes in the geographic distances between small businesses and their bank lenders, using a large random sample of loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration. Consistent with extant research, we find that small borrower-lender distances generally increased between 1984 and 2001, with a rapid acceleration in distance beginning in the late-1990s. We also document a new phenomenon: a fundamental reordering of borrower-lender distance by the borrowers' neighborhood income and race characteristics. Historically, borrower-lender distance tended to be shorter than average for historically underserved (for example, low-income and minority) areas, but by 2000 borrowers in these areas tended to be farther away from their lenders on average. This structural change is coincident in time with the adoption of credit scoring models that rely on automated lending processes and quantitative information, and we find indirect evidence consistent with this link. Our findings suggest that there has been increased entry into local markets for small business loans and this should help allay fears that movement toward automated lending processes will reduce small businesses' access to credit in already underserved markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economics and Business.

Volume (Year): 60 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1-2 ()
Pages: 149-164

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jebusi:v:60:y:2008:i:1-2:p:149-164

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconbus

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References

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  1. Robert DeYoung & W. Scott Frame & Dennis Glennon & Daniel P. McMillen & Peter J. Nigro, 2007. "Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas," Working Paper 2007-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  2. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
  3. Cole, Rebel A. & Goldberg, Lawrence G. & White, Lawrence J., 2004. "Cookie Cutter vs. Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(02), pages 227-251, June.
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  6. Allen N. Berger & W. Scott Frame & Nathan H. Miller, 2002. "Credit scoring and the availability, price, and risk of small business credit," Working Paper 2002-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  7. Allen N. Berger & Nathan H. Miller & Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Does Function Follow Organizational Form? Evidence From the Lending Practices of Large and Small Banks," NBER Working Papers 8752, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Helen F. Ladd, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Mortgage Lending," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 41-62, Spring.
  9. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
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  11. Timothy Hannan, 2003. "Changes in Non-Local Lending to Small Business," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 31-46, August.
  12. Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-92, November.
  13. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  14. Allen Berger & Robert DeYoung, 2001. "The Effects of Geographic Expansion on Bank Efficiency," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 163-184, April.
  15. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
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  18. Rebel A. Cole & John D. Wolken, 1995. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 629-667.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Geraldo CERQUEIRO & Hans DEGRYSE & Steven ONGENA, 2007. "Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces0723, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiƫn.
  2. Kenneth P. Brevoort & John D. Wolken, 2008. "Does distance matter in banking?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. O. Emre Ergungor & Stephanie Moulton, 2011. "Do bank branches matter anymore?," Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Aug.
  4. Inderst, Roman, 2008. "Retail finance: Bringing in the supply side," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/36, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  5. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hainz, Christa, 2008. "Integrating with Their Feet: Cross-Border Lending at the German-Austrian Border," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 248, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  6. DeYoung, Robert & Frame, W. Scott & Glennon, Dennis & McMillen, Daniel P. & Nigro, Peter, 2008. "Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 149-164.
  7. John R. Walter & Patricia E. Wescott, 2008. "Antitrust analysis in banking : goals, methods, and justifications in a changed environment," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 45-72.
  8. Elizabeth Laderman & Carolina Reid, 2010. "The Community Reinvestment Act and small business lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods during the financial crisis," Community Development Investment Center Working Paper 2010-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

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