Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Who needs credit and who gets credit? Evidence from the Surveys of Small Business Finances

Contents:

Author Info

  • Cole, Rebel A.

Abstract

In this study, we use data from the Federal Reserve’s 1993, 1998 and 2003 Surveys of Small Business Finances to classify small businesses into four groups based upon their credit needs and to model the credit allocation process into a sequence of three steps. First, do firms need credit? We classify those that do not as “non-borrowers;” these firms have received scant attention in the literature even though they account for more than half of all small firms. Second, do firms need credit but fail to apply because they feared being turned down? We classify such firms as “discouraged borrowers.” Like non-borrowers, discouraged borrowers have received little attention in the literature and often are pooled with firms who applied for, but were denied, credit. Discouraged borrowers outnumber firms that applied for, but were denied, credit by more than two to one. Third, do firms apply for credit, but get turned down? We classify such firms as “denied borrowers.” Finally, we classify firms that applied for, and were extended, credit as “approved borrowers.” Our results reveal strong and significant differences among each of these four groups of firms. Non-borrowers look very much like approved borrowers, consistent with the Pecking-Order Theory of capital structure. Discouraged borrowers resemble denied borrowers in many respects, but are significantly different along a number of dimensions. This finding calls into question the results from previous studies that have pooled together these two groups of firms in analyzing credit allocation. Finally, we find strong evidence that denied borrowers differ from approved borrowers across numerous characteristics, as previously documented in the literature. Of particular note, minority owned-firms, and especially Black-owned firms, were denied credit at a far higher rate than firms with owners who were white.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24691/
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 24691.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 01 May 2008
Date of revision: 15 Mar 2010
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:24691

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: availability of credit; capital structure; discrimination; entrepreneurship; small business; SSBF;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Mark Carey & Mitch Post & Steven A. Sharpe, 1996. "Does corporate lending by banks and finance companies differ? Evidence on specialization in private debt contracting," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  3. Marianne P. Bitler & Tobias J. Moskowitz & Annette Vissing-Jørgensen, 2005. "Testing Agency Theory with Entrepreneur Effort and Wealth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 539-576, 04.
  4. Van de Ven, Wynand P. M. M. & Van Praag, Bernard M. S., 1981. "The demand for deductibles in private health insurance : A probit model with sample selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 229-252, November.
  5. Allen N. Berger & Nathan H. Miller & Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Does Function Follow Organzizational Form? Evidence From the Lending Practices of Large and Small Banks," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1976, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  6. Ken Cavalluzzo & John Wolken, 2005. "Small Business Loan Turndowns, Personal Wealth, and Discrimination," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2153-2178, November.
  7. Gregory E. Elliehausen & John D. Wolken, 1990. "Banking markets and the use of financial services by small and medium- sized businesses," Staff Studies 160, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
  9. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  10. Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-92, November.
  11. Mitchell Berlin & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Deposits and relationship lending," Working Papers 96-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  12. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
  13. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-43, May.
  14. Chakraborty, Atreya & Hu, Charles X., 2006. "Lending relationships in line-of-credit and nonline-of-credit loans: Evidence from collateral use in small business," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 86-107, January.
  15. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
  16. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
  2. Ricardo Bebczuk, 2010. "Acceso al financiamiento de las PYMES en Argentina: Estado de situación y propuestas de política," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0104, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:24691. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.