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Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas

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  • Robert DeYoung
  • W. Scott Frame
  • Dennis Glennon
  • Daniel P. McMillen
  • Peter J. Nigro

Abstract

We study recent changes in the geographic distances between small businesses and their bank lenders, using a large random sample of loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration. Consistent with extant research, we find that small borrower-lender distances generally increased between 1984 and 2001, with a rapid acceleration in distance beginning in the late-1990s. We also document a new phenomenon: a fundamental reordering of borrower-lender distance by the borrowers' neighborhood income and race characteristics. Historically, borrower-lender distance tended to be shorter than average for historically underserved (for example, low-income and minority) areas, but by 2000 borrowers in these areas tended to be farther away from their lenders on average. This structural change is coincident in time with the adoption of credit scoring models that rely on automated lending processes and quantitative information, and we find indirect evidence consistent with this link. Our findings suggest that there has been increased entry into local markets for small business loans and this should help allay fears that movement toward automated lending processes will reduce small businesses' access to credit in already underserved markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 2007-11.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:2007-11

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  1. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
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  12. DeYoung, Robert & Frame, W. Scott & Glennon, Dennis & McMillen, Daniel P. & Nigro, Peter, 2008. "Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 149-164.
  13. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
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  15. Rebel A. Cole & John D. Wolken, 1995. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 629-667.
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Cited by:
  1. Kenneth P. Brevoort & John D. Wolken, 2008. "Does distance matter in banking?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. DeYoung, Robert & Frame, W. Scott & Glennon, Dennis & McMillen, Daniel P. & Nigro, Peter, 2008. "Commercial lending distance and historically underserved areas," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 149-164.
  3. Jarko Fidrmuc & Christa Hainz, 2008. "Integrating with their Feet: Cross-Border Lending at the German-Austrian Border," CESifo Working Paper Series 2279, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Cerqueiro, G.M. & Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2007. "Rules versus Discretion in Loan Rate Setting," Discussion Paper 2007-026, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
  5. O. Emre Ergungor & Stephanie Moulton, 2011. "Do bank branches matter anymore?," Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Aug.
  6. Inderst, Roman, 2008. "Retail finance: Bringing in the supply side," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/36, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  7. Elizabeth Laderman & Carolina Reid, 2010. "The Community Reinvestment Act and small business lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods during the financial crisis," Community Development Investment Center Working Paper 2010-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  8. John R. Walter & Patricia E. Wescott, 2008. "Antitrust analysis in banking : goals, methods, and justifications in a changed environment," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 45-72.

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