Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

The impact of off-balance-sheet activities on banks returns: An application of the ARCH-M to Canadian data

Contents:

Author Info

  • Calmès, Christian
  • Théoret, Raymond

Abstract

This paper revisits the impact of off-balance-sheet (OBS) activities on banks risk-return trade-off. Recent studies (e.g.,Stiroh and Rumble, 2006) show that increasing OBS activities does not necessarily yield straightforward diversification benefits for banks. However, introducing a risk premium in the standard banks returns models, and resorting to an ARCH-M procedure, Canadian data suggest that banks risk-return trade-off displays a structural break around 1997. In the second subperiod of our sample (1997-2007), we find that the noninterest income generated by OBS activities no longer impacts banks returns negatively. While during the first period (1988-1996) the volatility variable is not significant in any returns equations, a risk premium eventually emerges, pricing the risk associated to OBS activities.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCY-4YRHCS9-1/2/06248a0c7d9bf6efaa88a6485c6f104d
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

Volume (Year): 34 (2010)
Issue (Month): 7 (July)
Pages: 1719-1728

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:7:p:1719-1728

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

Related research

Keywords: Regulatory changes Noninterest income Diversification Structural break Shadow banking Risk premium;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Wagner, Wolf, 2008. "The homogenization of the financial system and financial crises," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 330-356, July.
  2. Kevin Stiroh, 2004. "Do Community Banks Benefit from Diversification?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 135-160, April.
  3. Campa, Jose M. & Kedia, Simi, 2000. "Explaining the diversification discount," IESE Research Papers D/424, IESE Business School.
  4. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
  5. Christian Calmès, 2004. "Regulatory Changes and Financial Structure: The Case of Canada," Working Papers 04-26, Bank of Canada.
  6. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo Engel, 2003. "Adjustment is Much Slower than You Think," NBER Working Papers 9898, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2002. "The effects of focus and diversification on bank risk and return: evidence from individual bank loan portfolios," Proceedings 905, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  8. Wagner, Wolf, 2010. "Diversification at financial institutions and systemic crises," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 373-386, July.
  9. Alan K. Reichert & Larry D. Wall, 2000. "The potential for portfolio diversification in financial services," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q3, pages 35-52.
  10. Mario Quagliariello, 2006. "Macroeconomics Uncertainty and Banks' Lending Decisions: The Case of Italy," Discussion Papers 06/02, Department of Economics, University of York.
  11. Kevin Stiroh, 2006. "New Evidence on the Determinants of Bank Risk," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 237-263, December.
  12. Christopher F. Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Neslihan Ozkan, 2002. "The Impact of Macroeconomic Uncertainty on Bank Lending Behavior," Computing in Economics and Finance 2002 94, Society for Computational Economics.
  13. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
  14. Urban Jermann & Vincenzo Quadrini, 2006. "Financial Innovations and Macroeconomic Volatility," NBER Working Papers 12308, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Busch, Ramona & Kick, Thomas, 2009. "Income diversification in the German banking industry," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  16. Joel F. Houston & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2006. "Three decades of financial sector risk," Staff Reports 248, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  17. Christian Calmès & Ying Liu, 2005. "Financial Structure Change and Banking Income: a Canada-U.S. Comparison," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp0302005, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  18. Robert DeYoung & Tara Rice, 2004. "Noninterest Income and Financial Performance at U.S. Commercial Banks," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 101-127, 02.
  19. Christopher F. Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Neslihan Ozkan, 2004. "The second moments matter: The response of bank lending behavior to macroeconomic uncertainty," Discussion Papers in Economics 04/13, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
  20. Stiroh, Kevin J., 2006. "A Portfolio View of Banking with Interest and Noninterest Activities," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(5), pages 1351-1361, August.
  21. Joshua D. Coval & Jakub W. Jurek & Erik Stafford, 2009. "Economic Catastrophe Bonds," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 628-66, June.
  22. Gayle Delong & Robert Deyoung, 2007. "Learning by Observing: Information Spillovers in the Execution and Valuation of Commercial Bank M&As," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 181-216, 02.
  23. John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1994. "Are banks dead? or, are the reports greatly exaggerated?," Proceedings 25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  24. Stiroh, Kevin J. & Rumble, Adrienne, 2006. "The dark side of diversification: The case of US financial holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2131-2161, August.
  25. DeYoung, Robert & Roland, Karin P., 2001. "Product Mix and Earnings Volatility at Commercial Banks: Evidence from a Degree of Total Leverage Model," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 54-84, January.
  26. Jorge Roldos, 2006. "Disintermediation and Monetary Transmission in Canada," IMF Working Papers 06/84, International Monetary Fund.
  27. Saunders, Anthony & Walter, Ingo, 1994. "Universal Banking in the United States: What Could We Gain? What Could We Lose?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195080698, September.
  28. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 2008. "Crisis and Responses: the Federal Reserve and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008," NBER Working Papers 14134, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Stiroh, Kevin J, 2004. "Diversification in Banking: Is Noninterest Income the Answer?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 853-82, October.
  30. De Jonghe, O.G., 2009. "Back to Basics in Banking? A Micro-Analysis of Banking System Stability," Discussion Paper 2009-45 S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  31. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "Bank income structure and risk: An empirical analysis of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1452-1467, August.
  32. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "The shadow banking system: implications for financial regulation," Staff Reports 382, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  33. Joshua Coval & Jakub Jurek & Erik Stafford, 2009. "The Economics of Structured Finance," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 3-25, Winter.
  34. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
  35. Rocco Huang & Lev Ratnovski, 2009. "Why Are Canadian Banks More Resilient?," IMF Working Papers 09/152, International Monetary Fund.
  36. Gropp, Reint & Heider, Florian, 2009. "The determinants of bank capital structure," Working Paper Series 1096, European Central Bank.
  37. Rose, Peter S, 1989. "Diversification of the Banking Firm," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 24(2), pages 251-80, May.
  38. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "The expansion of services in European banking: Implications for loan pricing and interest margins," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2325-2335, November.
  39. Brown, James R. & Petersen, Bruce C., 2009. "Why has the investment-cash flow sensitivity declined so sharply? Rising R&D and equity market developments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 971-984, May.
  40. Pérignon, Christophe & Deng, Zi Yin & Wang, Zhi Jun, 2008. "Do banks overstate their Value-at-Risk?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 783-794, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Perera, Anil & Ralston, Deborah & Wickramanayake, J., 2014. "Impact of off-balance sheet banking on the bank lending channel of monetary transmission: Evidence from South Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 195-216.
  2. Uhde, André & Michalak, Tobias C., 2010. "Securitization and systematic risk in European banking: Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 3061-3077, December.
  3. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2014. "Bank systemic risk and macroeconomic shocks: Canadian and U.S. evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 388-402.
  4. Cardone-Riportella, Clara & Samaniego-Medina, Reyes & Trujillo-Ponce, Antonio, 2010. "What drives bank securitisation? The Spanish experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2639-2651, November.
  5. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2013. "Is the Canadian Banking System Really ¡°Stronger¡± than the U.S. One?," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 1-18, November.
  6. Nijskens, Rob & Wagner, Wolf, 2011. "Credit risk transfer activities and systemic risk: How banks became less risky individually but posed greater risks to the financial system at the same time," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1391-1398, June.
  7. Christian Calmes & Raymond Theoret, 2011. "Lifting the Veil: Regulation and Shadow Banking," e-briefs 110, C.D. Howe Institute.
  8. Nguyen, James, 2012. "The relationship between net interest margin and noninterest income using a system estimation approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2429-2437.
  9. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2011. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: An empirical investigation using Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp322011, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  10. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Is the Canadian banking system really “stronger” than the U.S. one?," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  11. Guidara, Alaa & Lai, Van Son & Soumaré, Issouf & Tchana Tchana, Fulbert, 2013. "Banks’ Capital Buffer, Risk and Performance in the Canadian Banking System: Impact of Business Cycles and Regulatory Changes," MPRA Paper 44105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2013. "Market-oriented banking, financial stability and macro-prudential indicators of leverage," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 13-34.
  13. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:7:p:1719-1728. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.