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Financial structure change and banking income: A Canada-U.S. comparison

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  • Calmès, Christian
  • Liu, Ying

Abstract

Data suggest that the Canadian financial structure, and particularly indirect finance (e.g., banking), have become more market-oriented. We associate this financial trend in part with the regulatory changes that have occurred in Canada since the 1980s. Financial intermediaries are increasingly involved with financial market activities--e.g. off-balance sheet (OBS) activities such as underwriting securities. In this article we analyze the noninterest income attributable to these financial market activities. We find that the variance of Canadian banks' aggregate operating-income growth is rising because of the increased contribution of noninterest income. Overall, our analysis corroborates the U.S. findings of Stiroh and Rumble (Stiroh, K., 2006. A portfolio view of banking with interest and noninterest assets. Jounal of Money, Credit, and Banking 38, 1351-1361; Stiroh, K., Rumble, A., 2006. The darkside of diversification: the case of U.S. financial holding companies. Journal of Banking and Finance 30, 2131-2161): by contributing to banking income volatility, market-oriented activities do not necessarily yield straightforward diversification benefits to Canadian banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money.

Volume (Year): 19 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 128-139

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Handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:19:y:2009:i:1:p:128-139

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intfin

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Keywords: Regulatory changes Noninterest income Diversification;

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References

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  1. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 2003. "Banks and Markets: the Changing Character of European Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3865, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1994. "Are banks dead? Or are the reports greatly exaggerated?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Sum, pages 2-23.
  3. Christian Calmès, 2004. "Regulatory Changes and Financial Structure: The Case of Canada," Working Papers 04-26, Bank of Canada.
  4. Clark, Jeffrey A & Siems, Thomas F, 2002. "X-Efficiency in Banking: Looking beyond the Balance Sheet," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 987-1013, November.
  5. Joel F. Houston & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2006. "Three decades of financial sector risk," Staff Reports 248, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Philippe Bergevin & Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Time-Varying Leverage and Basel III: A Look at Canadian Evidence," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 233-247, August.
  2. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2012. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: Canadian and U.S. evidence," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022012, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  3. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2013. "Is the Canadian Banking System Really ¡°Stronger¡± than the U.S. One?," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 1-18, November.
  4. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2014. "Bank systemic risk and macroeconomic shocks: Canadian and U.S. evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 388-402.
  5. Nguyen, James, 2012. "The relationship between net interest margin and noninterest income using a system estimation approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2429-2437.
  6. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "Off-Balance-Sheet Activities and the Shadow Banking System: An Application of the Hausman Test with Higher Moments Instruments," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp042009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  7. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2011. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: An empirical investigation using Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp322011, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  8. Robert Andersen & M. McIvor, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Canada," GINI Country Reports canada, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  9. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Is the Canadian banking system really “stronger” than the U.S. one?," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  10. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "The Impact of Off-Balance-Sheet Activities on Banks Returns: An Application of the ARCH-M to Canadian Data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp032009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  11. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2013. "Market-oriented banking, financial stability and macro-prudential indicators of leverage," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 13-34.
  12. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.

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