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Efficiency and Economies of Scale of Large Canadian Banks

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  • Jason Allen
  • Ying Liu

Abstract

The authors measure the economies of scale of Canada's six largest banks and their cost-efficiency over time. Using a unique panel data set from 1983 to 2003, they estimate pooled translog cost functions and derive measures of relative efficiency and economies of scale. The disaggregation of the data allows the authors to model Canadian banks as producing multiple outputs, including non-traditional activities. Given the long time span of the data set, they also incorporate technological and regulatory changes in the banks' cost functions, as well as time-varying bank-specific effects. The authors' model leads them to reject constant returns to scale. These findings suggest that there are potential scale benefits in the Canadian banking industry. The authors also find that technological and regulatory changes have had significant positive effects on the banks' cost structure.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 05-13.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:05-13

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Postal: 234 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G9, Canada
Phone: 613 782-8845
Fax: 613 782-8874
Web page: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/

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Keywords: Financial institutions;

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References

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  1. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Efficiency of Financial Institutions: International Survey and Directions for Future Research," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-05, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. Peter C.B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1222, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  3. Murray, John D & White, Robert W, 1983. " Economies of Scale and Economies of Scope in Multiproduct Financial Institutions: A Study of British Columbia Credit Unions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 887-902, June.
  4. James McIntosh, 2002. "A welfare analysis of Canadian chartered bank mergers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(3), pages 457-475, August.
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  10. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-99, May.
  11. Freedman, C. & Goodlet, C., 1998. "The Financial Services Sector: Past Changes and Future Prospects," Technical Reports 82, Bank of Canada.
  12. Sherrill Shaffer, 1990. "A test of competition in Canadian banking," Working Papers 90-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  13. Rogers, Kevin E., 1998. "Nontraditional activities and the efficiency of US commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 467-482, May.
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  16. Clark, Jeffrey A & Siems, Thomas F, 2002. "X-Efficiency in Banking: Looking beyond the Balance Sheet," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 987-1013, November.
  17. Lawrence, Colin, 1989. "Banking Costs, Generalized Functional Forms, and Estimation of Economies of Scale and Scope," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(3), pages 368-79, August.
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  19. Rezvanian, Rasoul & Mehdian, Seyed, 2002. "An examination of cost structure and production performance of commercial banks in Singapore," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 79-98, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Leclerc, André & Fortin, Mario, 2009. "Économies d’échelle et de gamme dans les coopératives de services financiers : une approche non paramétrique (DEA)," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 85(3), pages 263-282, septembre.
  2. Thorsten V. Koeppl & James MacGee, 2007. "Branching Out: The Urgent Need to Transform Canada’s Financial Landscape and How to Do It," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 251, June.
  3. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Is the Canadian banking system really “stronger” than the U.S. one?," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  4. Diego A. Restrepo-Tobón & Subal C. Kumbhakar & Kai Sun, 2013. "Are U.S. Commercial Banks Too Big?," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 010943, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.
  5. David Dodge, 2011. "Public Policy for the Canadian Financial System: From Porter to the Present and Beyond," New Directions for Intelligent Government in Canada: Papers in Honour of Ian Stewart, in: Fred Gorbet & Andrew Sharpe (ed.), New Directions for Intelligent Government in Canada: Papers in Honour of Ian Stewart, pages 81-100 Centre for the Study of Living Standards.
  6. Dressler, Scott, 2008. "Economies of scale in banking, indeterminacy, and monetary policy," MPRA Paper 8370, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Guidara, Alaa & Lai, Van Son & Soumaré, Issouf & Tchana, Fulbert Tchana, 2013. "Banks’ capital buffer, risk and performance in the Canadian banking system: Impact of business cycles and regulatory changes," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3373-3387.
  8. Michalak, Tobias C. & Uhde, André, 2012. "Credit risk securitization and bank soundness in Europe," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 272-285.
  9. Dressler, Scott J., 2009. "Economies of scale in banking, confidence shocks, and business cycles," MPRA Paper 13310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Walid Hejazi & Eric Santor, 2005. "Degree of Internationalization and Performance: An Analysis of Canadian Banks," Working Papers 05-32, Bank of Canada.
  11. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2013. "Is the Canadian Banking System Really ¡°Stronger¡± than the U.S. One?," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 1-18, November.
  12. Jason Allen & Walter Engert & Ying Liu, 2006. "Are Canadian Banks Efficient? A Canada--U.S. Comparison," Working Papers 06-33, Bank of Canada.

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