Fare dispersions in airline markets: A quantitative assessment of theoretical explanations
AbstractThere are substantial fare dispersions in the airline industry. There are various theoretical explanations of this, but they only provide a qualitative justification of the phenomenon. This paper simulates the quantitative outcome of three popular models to evaluate their ability to generate substantial fare dispersions. We find that, in duopoly, the maximum fare dispersion that each model can generate is quite limited; and, even for the most favourable case, it is about one-third of the observed fare variability. Moving to more competitive market structures, however, some models generate better results.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Air Transport Management.
Volume (Year): 16 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-air-transport-management/
Airline industry; Fare dispersion; Simulated results;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Holmes, Thomas J, 1989. "The Effects of Third-Degree Price Discrimination in Oligopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 244-50, March.
- Rochet, Jean-Charles & Stole, Lars A, 2002.
"Nonlinear Pricing with Random Participation,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 277-311, January.
- Fredrik Carlsson, 2004. "Prices and Departures in European Domestic Aviation Markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 37-49, 02.
- Severin Borenstein & Nancy L. Rose, 1991.
"Competition and Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry,"
NBER Working Papers
3785, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Borenstein, Severin & Rose, Nancy L, 1994. "Competition and Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(4), pages 653-83, August.
- Morgan, John & Orzen, Henrik & Sefton, Martin, 2006. "An experimental study of price dispersion," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 134-158, January.
- Claudio A. Piga & Enrico Bachis, 2006. "Pricing strategies by European traditional and low cost airlines. Or, when is it the best time to book on line?," Discussion Paper Series 2006_14, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Jul 2006.
- Steven Berry & Panle Jia, 2010.
"Tracing the Woes: An Empirical Analysis of the Airline Industry,"
American Economic Journal: Microeconomics,
American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 1-43, August.
- Steven Berry & Panle Jia, 2008. "Tracing the Woes: An Empirical Analysis of the Airline Industry," NBER Working Papers 14503, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James D. Dana Jr., 1999. "Equilibrium Price Dispersion Under Demand Uncertainty: The Roles of Costly Capacity and Market Structure," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(4), pages 632-660, Winter.
- Kristopher S. Gerardi & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2009. "Does Competition Reduce Price Dispersion? New Evidence from the Airline Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(1), pages 1-37, 02.
- Armstrong, Mark & Vickers, John, 2001. "Competitive Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 579-605, Winter.
- James D. Dana & Jr., 1998. "Advance-Purchase Discounts and Price Discrimination in Competitive Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(2), pages 395-422, April.
- Carl Davidson & Raymond Deneckere, 1986. "Long-Run Competition in Capacity, Short-Run Competition in Price, and the Cournot Model," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(3), pages 404-415, Autumn.
- Evans, William N & Kessides, Ioannis N, 1993. "Localized Market Power in the U.S. Airline Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(1), pages 66-75, February.
- Varian, Hal R, 1980. "A Model of Sales," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(4), pages 651-59, September.
- Giaume, Stephanie & Guillou, Sarah, 2004. "Price discrimination and concentration in European airline markets," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 305-310.
- Anirban Sengupta & Steven Wiggins, 2006. "Airline Pricing, Price Dispersion and Ticket Characteristics On and Off the Internet," Working Papers 06-07, NET Institute, revised Oct 2006.
- Evans, William N & Froeb, Luke M & Werden, Gregory J, 1993. "Endogeneity in the Concentration-Price Relationship: Causes, Consequences, and Cures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 431-38, December.
- Salop, Steven & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Bargains and Ripoffs: A Model of Monopolistically Competitive Price Dispersion,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 493-510, October.
- Steven Salop & Joseph Stiglitz, 1977. "Bargains and ripoffs: a model of monopolistically competitive price dispersion," Special Studies Papers 94, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Katz, Michael L, 1984. "Firm-Specific Differentiation and Competition among Multiproduct Firms," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages S149-66, January.
- George J. Stigler, 1961. "The Economics of Information," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69, pages 213.
- Diego Escobari & Li Gan, 2007. "Price Dispersion under Costly Capacity and Demand Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 13075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sofronis K. Clerides, 2004. "Price Discrimination with Differentiated Products: Definition and Identification," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 42(3), pages 402-412, July.
- Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
- Dasgupta, Partha & Maskin, Eric, 1986. "The Existence of Equilibrium in Discontinuous Economic Games, I: Theory," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 1-26, January.
- Severin Borenstein, 1985. "Price Discrimination in Free-Entry Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(3), pages 380-397, Autumn.
- Forbes, Silke J., 2008. "The effect of air traffic delays on airline prices," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 1218-1232, September.
- J. Miguel Villas-Boas & Udo Schmidt-Mohr, 1999. "Oligopoly with Asymmetric Information: Differentiation in Credit Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 375-396, Autumn.
- Marco Alderighi & Marcella Nicolini & Claudio A. Piga, 2012.
"Combined Effects of Load Factors and Booking Time on Fares: Insights from the Yield Management of a Low-Cost Airline,"
Quaderni di Dipartimento
171, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods.
- Marco Alderighi & Marcella Nicolini & Claudio A. Piga, 2012. "Combined Effects of Load Factors and Booking Time on Fares: Insights from the Yield Management of a Low-Cost Airline," Working Papers 2012.14, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Escobari, Diego & Mellado, Cristhian, 2013. "The Choice of Airport, Airline, and Departure Date and Time: Estimating the Demand for Flights," MPRA Paper 47943, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Diego, Escobari, 2014.
"Estimating Dynamic Demand for Airlines,"
55408, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.