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Patent licensing revisited: Heterogeneous firms and product differentiation

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  • Hernandez-Murillo, Ruben
  • Llobet, Gerard

Abstract

In this paper we study the optimal licensing agreement between a patentholder of a cost-reducing innovation and firms that have heterogeneous uses for the new technology. We consider the case in which these firms are competitors in a downstream market. We extend the competition environment among the licensees beyond the Cournot/Bertrand models considered by the previous literature to a framework with differentiated products. We also assume that potential licensees have private information about the usefulness of the new technology. We characterize two purposes the optimal licensing contract serves to the patentholder: separation of the licensees and competition softening in the downstream market. We also describe how the optimal contract changes with the degree of product differentiation.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 24 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 149-175

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Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:24:y:2006:i:1:p:149-175

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551

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References

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  1. Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
  2. Kamien, Morton I., 1992. "Patent licensing," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 331-354 Elsevier.
  3. Wang, X Henry & Yang, Bill Z, 1999. "On Licensing under Bertrand Competition," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 106-19, June.
  4. Macho-Stadler, Ines & Perez-Castrillo, J. David, 2001. "An Introduction to the Economics of Information: Incentives and Contracts," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780199243259.
  5. Choi, Jay Pil, 2001. "Technology transfer with moral hazard," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 249-266, January.
  6. Wang, X. Henry, 1998. "Fee versus royalty licensing in a Cournot duopoly model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 55-62, July.
  7. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 961-63, December.
  8. Nancy T. Gallini & Brian D. Wright, 1990. "Technology Transfer under Asymmetric Information," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 147-160, Spring.
  9. Llobet, Gerard, 2003. "Patent litigation when innovation is cumulative," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(8), pages 1135-1157, October.
  10. Eric Maskin & John Riley, 1984. "Monopoly with Incomplete Information," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(2), pages 171-196, Summer.
  11. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  12. Beggs, A. W., 1992. "The licensing of patents under asymmetric information," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 171-191, June.
  13. Bousquet, Alain & Cremer, Helmuth & Ivaldi, Marc & Wolkowicz, Michel, 1998. "Risk sharing in licensing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 535-554, September.
  14. Fauli-Oller, Ramon & Sandonis, Joel, 2002. "Welfare reducing licensing," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 192-205, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rey, Patrick & Salant, David, 2012. "Abuse of Dominance and Licensing of Intellectual Property," TSE Working Papers 12-297, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  2. San Martín Lizarralde, Marta & Saracho de la Torre, Ana Isabel, 2012. "Two-part tariff licensing mechanisms," IKERLANAK Ikerlanak;2012-59, Universidad del País Vasco - Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I.
  3. Giebe, Thomas & Wolfstetter, Elmar G., 2006. "License Auctions with Royalty Contracts for Losers," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 96, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  4. Josep Pijoan-Mas, 2003. "Precautionary Savings Or Working Longer Hours?," Working Papers wp2003_0311, CEMFI.
  5. Weifang Lou, 2009. "Estimating the Impact of a Potential Process Innovation and the Optimal Strategy of Licensing," Working Papers 2009.03, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  6. Weifang Lou, 2009. "Estimating the Impact of a Potential Process Innovation and the Optimal Strategy of Licensing," Working Papers 2009.03, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  7. Elizalde, Abel & Repullo, Rafael, 2004. "Economic and Regulatory Capital: What is the Difference?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4770, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Giebe, Thomas & Wolfstetter, Elmar, 2008. "License auctions with royalty contracts for (winners and) losers," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 91-106, May.
  9. Shane B. Evans, 2010. "Innovation Contracts with Leakage Through Licensing," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2010-530, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
  10. Evans, Shane, 2010. "Innovation contracts with leakage through licensing," Working Papers 10282, University of Tasmania, School of Economics and Finance, revised 05 Oct 2010.
  11. Anthony Creane & Hideo Konishi, 2009. "Goldilocks and the Licensing Firm: Choosing a Partner when Rivals are Heterogeneous," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 720, Boston College Department of Economics.
  12. Chia Sun, 2014. "A conceptual framework for R&D strategic alliance assessment for Taiwan’s biotechnology industry," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 259-279, January.

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