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Fictitious play in 3x3 games: Chaos and dithering behaviour

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  • van Strien, Sebastian
  • Sparrow, Colin
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    Abstract

    In the 60's Shapley provided an example of a two player fictitious play which generates periodic behaviour. In this game, player A prefers to copy B's behaviour and player B prefers to play one strategy ahead of player A. In this paper we continue to study a family of games which generalise Shapley's example by introducing an external parameter, and prove that there exists an abundance of periodic and chaotic behaviour with players dithering between different strategies. The reason for all this, is that there exists a periodic orbit (consisting of playing mixed strategies) which is of 'jitter type': such an orbit is neither attracting, repelling or of saddle type as nearby orbits jitter closer and further away from it in a manner which is reminiscent of a random walk motion. We prove that this behaviour holds for an open set of games.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Games and Economic Behavior.

    Volume (Year): 73 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 1 (September)
    Pages: 262-286

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:gamebe:v:73:y:2011:i:1:p:262-286

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622836

    Related research

    Keywords: Fictitious play Learning process Bifurcation Chaos Replicator dynamics;

    References

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    1. Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Fictitious Play Property for Games with Identical Interests," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 258-265, January.
    2. A. Gaunersdorfer & J. Hofbauer, 2010. "Fictitious Play, Shapley Polygons and the Replicator Equation," Levine's Working Paper Archive 438, David K. Levine.
    3. Viossat, Yannick & Sorin, Sylvain & Hofbauer, Josef, 2009. "Time average replicator and best reply dynamics," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1014, Paris Dauphine University.
    4. Matsui, Akihiko, 1992. "Best response dynamics and socially stable strategies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 343-362, August.
    5. Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1996. "The Theory of Learning in Games," Levine's Working Paper Archive 624, David K. Levine.
    6. Jordan J. S., 1993. "Three Problems in Learning Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 368-386, July.
    7. Michel Benaim & Josef Hofbauer & Sylvain Sorin, 2005. "Stochastic Approximations and Differential Inclusions II: Applications," Levine's Bibliography 784828000000000098, UCLA Department of Economics.
    8. Michel Benaïm & Josef Hofbauer & Sylvain Sorin, 2005. "Stochastic Approximations and Differential Inclusions; Part II: Applications," Working Papers hal-00242974, HAL.
    9. Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Potential Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 124-143, May.
    10. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1991. "Adaptive and sophisticated learning in normal form games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 82-100, February.
    11. Berger, Ulrich, 2007. "Two more classes of games with the continuous-time fictitious play property," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 247-261, August.
    12. Berger, Ulrich, 2008. "Learning in games with strategic complementarities revisited," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 143(1), pages 292-301, November.
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