Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Corporate governance and incentive contracts: Historical evidence from a legal reform

Contents:

Author Info

  • Bayer, Christian
  • Burhop, Carsten

Abstract

This paper proposes to exploit a reform in legal rules of corporate governance to identify contractual incentives from the correlation of executive pay and firm performance. In particular, we refer to a major shift in the legal and institutional environment, the reform of the German joint-stock companies act in 1884. We analyze a sample of executive pay for 46 firms for the years 1870-1911. In 1884, a legal reform substantially enhanced corporate control, strengthened the monitoring incentives of shareholders, and reduced the discretionary power of executives in Germany. The pay-performance sensitivity decreased significantly after this reform. While executives received a bonus of about 3-5% in profits before 1884, after the reform this parameter decreased to a profit share of about 2%. At least the profit share that is eliminated by the reform most likely was incentive pay before. This incentive mechanism was replaced by other elements of corporate governance.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WFJ-4W9XG8Y-1/2/145888e33971e9da612367e6bb72696a
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Explorations in Economic History.

Volume (Year): 46 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
Pages: 464-481

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:exehis:v:46:y:2009:i:4:p:464-481

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622830

Related research

Keywords: N23 G30 J33 History of corporate governance Germany Pay-performance sensitivity Natural experiment Legal reform;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Goergen, Marc & Manjon, Miguel C. & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "Recent developments in German corporate governance," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 175-193, September.
  2. Elston, Julie Ann & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 2003. "Executive compensation and agency costs in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1391-1410, July.
  3. Grandy, Christopher, 1989. "New Jersey Corporate Chartermongering, 1875–1929," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(03), pages 677-692, September.
  4. Garen, John E, 1994. "Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1175-99, December.
  5. Caroline Fohlin, 1998. "Relationship Banking, Liquidity, and Investment in the German Industrialization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1737-1758, October.
  6. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-83, June.
  7. Hart, Oliver, 1995. "Corporate Governance: Some Theory and Implications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 678-89, May.
  8. Vicente Cuñat & Maria Guadalupe, 2005. "How does product market competition shape incentive contracts?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19894, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990. "Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-64, April.
  10. Volker Grossmann, 2003. "Managerial Job Assignment and Imperfect Competition in Asymmetric Equilibrium," CESifo Working Paper Series 914, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Klapper, Leora F. & Love, Inessa, 2004. "Corporate governance, investor protection, and performance in emerging markets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 703-728, November.
  12. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1991. "Multitask Principal-Agent Analyses: Incentive Contracts, Asset Ownership, and Job Design," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(0), pages 24-52, Special I.
  13. Fohlin,Caroline, 2007. "Finance Capitalism and Germany's Rise to Industrial Power," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521810203.
  14. Thompson, Steve & Sourafel Girma & Peter W Wright, 2003. "Corporate Governance Reforms and Executive Compensation Determination: Evidence from the UK," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 202, Royal Economic Society.
  15. Christian Bayer & Carsten Burhop, 2009. "If only I could sack you! Management turnover and performance in Great German Banks between 1874 and 1913," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 141-145.
  16. Tiroley, Jean, 2000. "Corporate Governance," CEI Working Paper Series 2000-1, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  17. Durnev, Art & Kim, E. Han, 2004. "To Steal or Not to Steal: Firm Attributes, Legal Environment, and Valuation," CEI Working Paper Series 2004-7, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  18. John E. Core & Wayne R. Guay & Tjomme O. Rusticus, 2006. "Does Weak Governance Cause Weak Stock Returns? An Examination of Firm Operating Performance and Investors' Expectations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 655-687, 04.
  19. De Nicolò, Gianni & Laeven, Luc & Ueda, Kenichi, 2008. "Corporate governance quality: Trends and real effects," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 198-228, April.
  20. Lazear, Edward P, 2000. "The Future of Personnel Economics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(467), pages F611-39, November.
  21. Rajesh Aggarwal & Andrew A. Samwick, 1998. "The Other Side of the Tradeoff: The Impact of Risk on Executive Compensation," NBER Working Papers 6634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Brian J. Hall & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1998. "Are CEOs Really Paid Like Bureaucrats?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(3), pages 653-691, August.
  23. Conyon, Martin J., 1997. "Corporate governance and executive compensation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 493-509, July.
  24. Simon Johnson & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "Privatization and Corporate Governance," NBER Chapters, in: Governance, Regulation, and Privatization in the Asia-Pacific Region, NBER East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 12, pages 13-34 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Lazear, Edward P, 1986. "Salaries and Piece Rates," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 405-31, July.
  26. Paul L. Joskow & Nancy L. Rose & Catherin D. Wolfram, 1994. "Political Constraints on Executive Compensation: Evidence from the Electric Utility Industry," NBER Working Papers 4980, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Caprio, Gerard & Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Governance and bank valuation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3202, The World Bank.
  28. Rene M. Stulz & Craig Doidge & Andrew Karolyi, 2004. "Why Do Countries Matter So Much for Corporate Governance?," NBER Working Papers 10726, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. John E. Core & Wayne R. Guay & David F. Larcker, 2003. "Executive equity compensation and incentives: a survey," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 27-50.
  30. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  31. Jeremy Edwards & Sheilagh Ogilvie, 1996. "Universal banks and German industrialization: a reappraisal," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 49(3), pages 427-446, 08.
  32. Conyon, Martin J & Murphy, Kevin J, 2000. "The Prince and the Pauper? CEO Pay in the United States and United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(467), pages F640-71, November.
  33. Canice Prendergast, 1999. "The Provision of Incentives in Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 7-63, March.
  34. Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
  35. George P. Baker & Brian J. Hall, 2004. "CEO Incentives and Firm Size," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 767-798, October.
  36. Paul Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2003. "Corporate Governance And Equity Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(1), pages 107-155, February.
  37. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
  38. Bittner, Thomas, 2005. "An event study of the Rhenish-Westphalian Coal Syndicate," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(03), pages 337-364, December.
  39. Core, John E. & Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1999. "Corporate governance, chief executive officer compensation, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 371-406, March.
  40. Kraft, Kornelius & Niederprum, Antonia, 1999. "Determinants of management compensation with risk-averse agents and dispersed ownership of the firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 17-27, September.
  41. Carsten Burhop, 2004. "Executive Remuneration and Firm Performance: The Case of Large German Banks, 1854-1910," Business History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(4), pages 525-543.
  42. Jain, Neelam, 2006. "Debt, managerial compensation and learning," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 377-399, February.
  43. Peters, Lon L., 1989. "Managing Competition in German Coal, 1893–1913," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(02), pages 419-433, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Foreman-Peck, James & Hannah, Leslie, 2011. "Extreme Divorce: the Managerial Revolution in UK Companies before 1914," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2011/21, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  2. Hermalin, Benjamin E. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2010. "Information Disclosure and Corporate Governance," SIFR Research Report Series 76, Institute for Financial Research, revised 01 Jun 2011.
  3. Sun, Bo, 2014. "Executive compensation and earnings management under moral hazard," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 276-290.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:exehis:v:46:y:2009:i:4:p:464-481. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.