An emerging equilibrium in the EU emissions trading scheme
AbstractThe European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the key policy instrument of the European Commission's Climate Change Program aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to eight percent below 1990 levels by 2012. A critically important element of the EU ETS is the establishment of a market determined price for EU allowances. This article examines the extent to which several theoretically founded factors including, economic growth, energy prices and weather conditions determine the expected prices of the European Union CO2 allowances during the 2005 through to the 2009 period. The novel aspect of our study is that we examine heavily traded futures instruments that have an expiry date in Phase 2 of the EU ETS. Our study adopts both static and recursive versions of the Johansen multivariate cointegration likelihood ratio test as well as a variation on this test with a view to controlling for time varying volatility effects. Our results are indicative of a new pricing regime emerging in Phase 2 and point to a maturing market driven by the fundamentals. These results are valuable both for traders of EU allowances and for those policy makers seeking to improve the design of the European Union ETS.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.
Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
Issue (Month): 2 (March)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco
CO2 prices Energy EU ETS Kyoto Protocol Weather;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- CO2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - - - -
- pri - - - - - -
- Ene - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - - - -
- EU - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - -
- ETS - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - - - -
- Kyo - Law and Economics - - - - -
- Pro - Economic Systems - - - - -
- Wea - - - - - -
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lee, Tae-Hwy & Tse, Yiuman, 1996. "Cointegration tests with conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 401-410, August.
- Maria Mansanet-Bataller & Angel Pardo & Enric Valor, 2007. "CO2 Prices, Energy and Weather," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 73-92.
- Considine, Timothy J., 2000. "The impacts of weather variations on energy demand and carbon emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 295-314, October.
- Jean-Marc Burniaux, 2000. "A Multi-Gas Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 270, OECD Publishing.
- Pan, Ming-Shiun & Liu, Y. Angela & Roth, Herbert J., 1999. "Common stochastic trends and volatility in Asian-Pacific equity markets," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 161-172.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Springer, Urs, 2003. "The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol: a survey of model studies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 527-551, September.
- Daskalakis, George & Psychoyios, Dimitris & Markellos, Raphael N., 2009. "Modeling CO2 emission allowance prices and derivatives: Evidence from the European trading scheme," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1230-1241, July.
- Benz, Eva & Trück, Stefan, 2009. "Modeling the price dynamics of CO2 emission allowances," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 4-15, January.
- Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-72, August.
- Brian Jacobsen, 2008. "Demonstrating error-correction modelling for intraday statistical arbitrage," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 4(4), pages 287-292.
- Gannon, Gerard L., 1996. "First and second order inefficiency in Australasian currency markets," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(2-3), pages 315-327, July.
- Alexakis, Panayotis & Apergis, Nicholas, 1996. "ARCH effects and cointegration: Is the foreign exchange market efficient?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 687-697, May.
- Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2004.
"Minimum LM Unit Root Test with One Structural Break,"
04-17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
- Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2013. "Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2483-2492.
- Tom Doan, . "LSUNIT: RATS procedure to implement Lee-Strazicich unit root tests with one or more structural breaks," Statistical Software Components RTS00112, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Rune Höglund & Ralf Östermark, 2003. "Size and power of some cointegration tests under structural breaks and heteroskedastic noise," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 1-22, January.
- Moral-Carcedo, Julian & Vicens-Otero, Jose, 2005. "Modelling the non-linear response of Spanish electricity demand to temperature variations," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 477-494, May.
- repec:ner:dauphi:urn:hdl:123456789/4223 is not listed on IDEAS
- Gary Koop & Lise Tole, 2011.
"Forecasting the European Carbon Market,"
1110, University of Strathclyde Business School, Department of Economics.
- Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Pigorsch, Uta & Rotfuß, Waldemar, 2013. "Nonlinearity in cap-and-trade systems: The EUA price and its fundamentals," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-001, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Anna Creti & Pierre-André Jouvet & Valérie Mignon, 2011.
"Carbon Price Drivers: Phase I versus Phase II Equilibrium?,"
1106, Chaire Economie du Climat.
- Creti, Anna & Jouvet, Pierre-André & Mignon, Valérie, 2012. "Carbon price drivers: Phase I versus Phase II equilibrium?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 327-334.
- Anna Creti & Pierre-André Jouvet & Valérie Mignon, 2011. "Carbon Price Drivers: Phase I Versus Phase II Equilibrium?," Working Papers 2011-09, CEPII research center.
- Kannan Thuraisamy & Gerard Gannon, 2012. "Modelling the Sovereign Linkages of Key Latin American Economies," Financial Econometics Series 2012_03, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
- Aleksandar Zaklan, 2013. "Why Do Emitters Trade Carbon Permits?: Firm-Level Evidence from the European Emission Trading Scheme," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1275, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.