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Bonds or Loans? the Effect of Macroeconomic Fundamentals

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  • Galina Hale

Abstract

The costs of debt crises are not invariant to the foreign debt instrument composition: bank loans or bonds. The lending boom of the 1990s witnessed considerable variation over time and across countries in the debt instrument used by emerging market (EM) borrowers. This article tests how macroeconomic fundamentals affect the composition of international debt instruments used by EM borrowers. Analysis of micro-level data using an ordered probability model shows that macroeconomic fundamentals explain a significant share of variation in the ratio of bonds to loans for private borrowers, but not for the sovereigns. Copyright 2007 The Author(s). Journal compilation Royal Economic Society 2007.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Royal Economic Society in its journal The Economic Journal.

Volume (Year): 117 (2007)
Issue (Month): 516 (01)
Pages: 196-215

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Handle: RePEc:ecj:econjl:v:117:y:2007:i:516:p:196-215

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  7. Fernando Broner & Guido Lorenzoni & Sergio L. Schmukler, 2003. "Why do emerging economies borrow short term?," Economics Working Papers 838, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Dec 2011.
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  16. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-38, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Arteta & Galina Hale, 2006. "Sovereign debt crises and credit to the private sector," Working Paper Series 2006-21, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  2. Barry Eichengreen & Pipat Luengnaruemitchai, 2006. "Why doesn’t Asia have bigger bond markets?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Asian bond markets: issues and prospects, volume 30, pages 40-77 Bank for International Settlements.
  3. Claessens, Stijn & Schmukler, Sergio, 2007. "International Financial Integration through Equity Markets: Which Firms from Which Countries Go Global?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6137, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Verona , Fabio & Martins, Manuel M. F. & Drumond , Inês, 2013. "(Un)anticipated monetary policy in a DSGE model with a shadow banking system," Research Discussion Papers 4/2013, Bank of Finland.
  5. Xingwang Qian & Andreas Steiner, 2012. "International Reserves and the Composition of Equity Capital Inflows," Working Papers 90, Institute of Empirical Economic Research.
  6. Paul Mizen & Serafeim Tsoukas, 2010. "What Effect Has Bond Market Development in Emerging Asia Had on the Issuance of Corporate Bonds?," Working Papers 182010, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  7. Barry Eichengreen & Pipat Luengnaruemitchai, 2004. "Why Dones't Asia have the biger bond markets," Working Papers 242004, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  8. Francis, Johanna L. & Aykut, Dilek & Tereanu, Eugen, 2014. "The cost of private debt over the credit cycle," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 146-181.
  9. Bussière, Matthieu & Fratzscher, Marcel & Koeniger, Winfried, 2004. "Currency mismatch, uncertainty and debt maturity structure," Working Paper Series 0409, European Central Bank.
  10. Hale, Galina & Arteta, Carlos, 2009. "Currency crises and foreign credit in emerging markets: Credit crunch or demand effect?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(7), pages 758-774, October.
  11. Winfried Koeniger & Matthieu Bussiere & Marcel Fratzscher, 2004. "Currency Mismatch, Uncertainty and Debt Structure," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 181, Econometric Society.
  12. Issam Hallak & Paul Schure, 2011. "Why Larger Lenders Obtain Higher Returns: Evidence from Sovereign Syndicated Loans," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 40(2), pages 427-453, 06.
  13. Paul Mizen & Serafeim Tsoukas, 2008. "Evidence on the External Finance Premium from the US and Emerging Asian Corporate Bond Markets," Working Papers 142008, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.

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